Theoretical Framework of Critical Discourse Analysis

Qianbo LI


Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) studies the relationship between language and ideology. It regards the distinctive linguistic choices, ranging from syntactic structure to pronunciation as the result of combined efforts between the producer’s unique ideology and the power relationships among the interlocutors in a specific area of experience. Therefore, it is of great necessity to study the core concepts of language, ideology and power in the domain of CDA.


Framework; Critical discourse analysis; Social practice

Full Text:



Bell, A. (1991). The language of news media. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Bell, A., & Garrett, P. (1998). Approaches to media discourse. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Billig, M. (1982). Ideology and social psychology. Oxford: Blackwell.

Bolinger, D. (1994). Aspects of language. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.

Brown, R., & Gilman, A. (1972). The pronouns of power and solitary. In A. Giglioli (Ed.), Language and social context. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Clark, R. (1978). Critical language awareness. In R. Clark et al. (Eds.), CLSL Working Papers 1 Center for Language in Social Life (pp.104-176). Lancaster: University of Lancaster.

Chouliaraki, L., & Fairclough, N. (1990). Discourse in late modernity: Rethinking critical discourse analysis. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Coutine, J. (1987). Language, political discourse and ideology. In V. U. Herausgeben, et al. (Eds.), Sociolinguistics: An introductory handbook of the science of language and society (pp.142-162). Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter.

Fairclough, N. (1989). Language and power. London: Longman.

Fairclough, N. (1991). Discourse and social change. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Polity Press.

Fairclough, N. (1992). Language awareness. London: Longman Group UK Limited.

Fairclough, N. (1995). Critical discourse analysis: The critical study of language. London/New York: Longman.

Foucault, M. (1970). Las meninas. In the order of things (pp.70-98). London: Tavistock.

Flaitz, J. (1988). The ideology of English. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Fowler, R. (1979a). Linguistics and the power. London: Methuen & Cp. Ltd.

Fowler, R., et al. (1979b). Language and control. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Fowler, R. (1991). Language in the news. London/ New York: Longman.

Fowler, R. (1986). Linguistic criticism. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.

Froman, C. (1993). Language and power. New Jersey: Humanities Press.

Gee, J. P. (2000). An introduction to discourse analysis: Theory and method. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.

Habermas, J. (1984). Theory of communicative action. London: Macmillan.

Halliday, M. A. K. (1973). Explorations in the functions of language. London: Edward Arnold.

Halliday, M. A. K. (1978). Language as social semiotics. London: Edward Aronld Ltd.

Hawkins, E. (1984). Awareness of language: An introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hodge, R., & Kress, G. (1993). Language as ideology (2nd ed.). London/New York: Rutledge.

Hodge, R., & Kress, G. (1988). Social semiotic. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Kress, G. (1990). Linguistic processes in sociocultural practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lacan, J. (1977). Function and field of speech and language. New York: WW Norton & Co.

Schiffrin, D. (1994). Approaches to discourse. Blackwell Publisher Ltd.

Simpson, P. (1993). Language, ideology and point of view. London/New York: Routledge.

Stubbs, M. (1997). Whorf’s children: Critical comments on critical discours analysis. In A. Ryan & A. Wray (Eds.), Evolving models of language (pp.146-217). Multilingual Matters Ltd.

Therborn, G. (1980). The ideology of power and the power of ideology. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Tompson, J. B. (1990). Ideology and modern culture. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Tollefson, J. W. (2000). Policy and ideology in the spread of English. In J. K. Hall & G. William (Eds.), The sociopolitics of English language teaching. Clevedon & Buffalo: Multilingual Matters.

Van Dijk, T. A. (1986). Racism in the press. London: Edward Arnold Ltd.

Van Dijik, T. A. (1990). Social cognition and discourse. In H. Giles & J. Robinson (Eds.), A handbook of language and social psychology (pp.112-196). John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Van Dijik, T. A. (1995). Discourse analysis as ideology analysis. In C. Schaffner & L. Anita (Eds.), Language and peace (pp.47-142). Weenden Dartmouth: Aldershot.

Wodak, R. (1989). Language, power and ideology: Studies in political discourse. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamin’s.

Wodak, R. (1995). Critical linguistics and critical discourse analysis. In J. Verschuren et al. (Eds.), A handbook of pragmatics-manual (pp.139-198). Amsterdan/Philadephia: John Bejiamins Publishing Company.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 Qianbo LI

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Share us to:   


Online Submission


How to do online submission to another Journal?

If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:

1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author

Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.

2. Submission

Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.

We only use three mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases:;;

 Articles published in Studies in Literature and Language are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY).


Address: 1055 Rue Lucien-L'Allier, Unit #772, Montreal, QC H3G 3C4, Canada.
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138 
Website: Http://; Http://;;

Copyright © 2010 Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture