CSCanada includes 14 international non-profit Journals dedicated to advance academic achievements and research information around the world. The host organizations of our journals are Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture (CAOOC), Canadian Research & Development Center of Sciences and Cultures (CRDCSC), with their headquarter in Montreal, Canada. Registered in Quebec in March, 2005, CAOOC and CRDCSC are committed to scientific research and spreading eastern and western cultures.

CSCanada enables discovery, access, and preservation of scholarly content by serving as an educator, leader, spokesperson and professional association to achieve the following goals:

Help scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of scholarly content on a dynamic platform that increases productivity and facilitates new forms of scholarship

Help libraries connect patrons to vital content while increasing shelf-space savings and lowering costs

Help academic databases connect patrons to vital content so that persons can inquire and use the information conveniently and duly

Help various academic institutions reach new audiences and preserve their scholarly content for future generations Promote the international cooperation of scholars

It will be a wise decision to choose our journals because of the quality and value we provide and promise as following:

Promoting International Cooperation

CSCanada is working with over 1000 scholars, researchers, professors and students. As authors, readers, editorial board members, professionals who have accomplished in various academic fields all over the world work together to rich and improve the contents of our journals. CSCanada also cooperates with internationally renowned academic databases, libraries, academies, associations and other institutions to maximize the global reach of our journals.

Comprehensive and Recognized Subject Category

CSCanada includes 14 journals, diversifying in most disciplines currently used in academic circle, which makes our journals provide a complete picture of worldwide influential research. In the future, CSCanada will ceaselessly increase and refine its subject category so that more academic voices can be heard.

Easy and Convenient to Inquire and Use

All journals of Cscanada use Open Journal Systems (OJS). It’s very convenient for everyone to view articles or journals for free by directly visit CSCanada website: and


All journals of Cscanada have been indexed by famous academic databases that readers and users can easily find.


One key request of researchers across the world is unrestricted access to research publications. Open access gives a worldwide audience larger than that of any subscription-based journal and thus increases the visibility and impact of published work. It also enhances indexing, retrieval power and eliminates the need for permissions to reproduce and distribute content. All CSCanada journals are fully committed to the Open Access Initiative and will provide free access to all articles as soon as they are published.


We strongly recommend you read this in full if you have not previously submitted a contribution to CSCanada. We also suggest that before submission you familiarize yourself with CSCanada’s style and content by reading the journals, either in print or online, especially if you have not submitted to our journals recently.


All manuscripts should be sent by email as attachments to relative email address or submitted via the online system and should be typed in single line spacing and 10 pt.

Research Articles

Research Articles are innovative reports whose conclusions represent a substantial advance in the understanding of a significant problem and have directly, far-reaching implications.

Research Articles include an abstract, an introduction, up to 20 figures or tables, sections with brief subheadings. Materials and Methods should usually be included which will also be needed to support the paper’s conclusions.

► Reports

Reports are short articles of creative research focused on an outstanding finding whose importance means that it will be of interest to scientists in other fields. They should have less than 30 references.

They begin with a fully referenced paragraph, of about 200 words, (definitely no more than 300 words) aimed at readers in other disciplines. The letters (up to ~ 5000 words including references, notes and captions or ~ 5 printed pages) should include an abstract, an introductory paragraph, up to six figures or tables. Materials and Methods should usually be included, which should be needed to support the paper's conclusions.

► Reviews

Reviews describe new developments of interdisciplinary significance and highlight future directions. They include an abstract, an introduction that outlines the main theme, brief subheadings, and an outline of important unresolved questions. A maximum of 50 references is suggested. Most Reviews are solicited by the editors, but unsolicited submissions may also be considered.

► Other contributions to CSCanada

CSCanada also publishes News and Comment, Correspondence, Opinion, Book & Arts, Futures, News and Views, Perspectives, Insights, Outlooks, Analyses, Hypotheses, and Technology features. Please visit

Manuscript Selection

Manuscripts should be clear and simple so that they are accessible to readers in other disciplines and to readers for whom English is not their first language. Authors are notified of decisions by e-mail. Repeated submissions of the same manuscript will not be acknowledged. CSCanada treats all submitted manuscripts as confidential documents. Our peer review process is also confidential and identities of reviewers are not released. Research papers that are selected for in-depth review are evaluated by at least two outside referees. Reviewers are contacted before being sent a paper and asked to return comments within 1 to 2 weeks for most papers. We are able to expedite the review process significantly for papers that require rapid assessment. Selected papers are edited to improve accuracy and clarity and for length. Papers cannot be resubmitted over a disagreement on interest or relative merit. If a paper was rejected on the basis of serious reviewer error, resubmission may be considered. In some cases, reviewers are satisfied that a paper's conclusions are adequately supported by the data presented, but the general interest of the findings is not sufficient to justify publication in CSCanada. In such a case, the authors will be offered the opportunity for publication with additional review required when reviewers have asked for supplementary experiments during revision. In this case again, reviewers and editors may find an appropriately worded version of the paper to be acceptable for publication without further in depth review.

CSCanada makes decisions about submitted papers as rapidly as possible. All manuscripts are handled electronically throughout the consideration process. Authors are usually informed within a week if the paper is not being considered.


Manuscripts are preferred to be presented in the following order:


Abstract and Keywords


End Notes



Figure Legends

Tables (each table complete with title and footnotes)



Titles do not exceed two lines in print. This equates to 90 characters (including spaces) for Letters or 75 characters (including spaces) for Research Articles. Titles do not normally include numbers, acronyms, abbreviations or punctuation. They should include sufficient detail for indexing purposes but be general enough for readers outside the field to appreciate what the paper is about.



We suggest each manuscript should accompany a structured abstract to explain to the general reader why the research was done and why the results are significant. A structured abstract should include such contents: the purpose of the research, the materials and methods and the results. Please do not include citations or undefined abbreviations in the abstract. The preferred length of the abstract is less than 300.



Research articles should fill no more than 30 pages, and Letters no more than 5 pages. A typical Letter to CSCanada contains about 5000 words of text (including the first paragraph of Letters, figure legends, reference list and the methods section if applicable) and four small display items (figures and/or tables) with brief legends. A composite figure (with several panels) usually needs to take about half a page, equivalent to about 600 words, in order for all the elements to be visible. Our preferred format for is APA and MSWord is also acceptable. We prefer the use of a ‘standard’ font, preferably 10-point Times New Roman. For mathematical symbols, Greek letters and other special characters, use normal text or Symbol font. Word Equation Editor/Math Type should be used only for formulae that cannot be produced using normal text or Symbol font. When you quote some paper in your article please follow the APA format. For detail information please visit


End Notes

End notes are brief and follow the reference list. Papers containing supplementary information contain a statement after the reference list:

Acknowledgements should be brief, and should not include thanks to anonymous referees and editors, inessential words, or effusive comments. Acknowledgements can contain grant and contribution numbers.

Author Contributions: authors are required to include a statement to specify the contributions of each co-author. The statement can be up to several sentences long, describing the tasks of individual authors referred to by their initials.



References are each numbered, ordered sequentially as they appear in the text, methods summary, tables, boxes, figure legends, online-only methods in our nature science and engineering journals. When cited in the text, reference numbers are superscript, not in brackets unless they are likely to be confused with a superscript number. Only one publication can be listed for each number. We preferred articles that have been published or submitted to a named publication in the reference list; papers in preparation should be mentioned in the text with a list of authors (or initials if any of the authors are co-authors of the present contribution). Published conference abstracts, numbered patents and preprints on recognized servers may be included in reference lists, but text, grant details and acknowledgements may not. Please follow the style below in the published edition of CSCanada in preparing reference lists.

We advise the authors to use the APA style to write the references list. You can visit for detail information. There are some examples for APA style.


One author:

Gardner, H. (1993). Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. New York: Basic Books.

Two to seven authors:

Cargill, O., Charvat, W., & Walsh, D. D. (1966). The Publication of Academic Writing. New York: Modern Language Association.

More than seven authors:

Cooper, L., Eagle, K., Howe, L., Robertson, A., Taylor, D., Reims, H., . . . Smith, W. A. (1982). How to Stay Younger While Growing Older: Aging for All Ages. London: Macmillan.

No author given:

Experimental Psychology. (1938). New York: Holt.

No publication date given:

Smith, J. (n.d.). Morality in Masquerade. London: Churchill.

An organization or institution as “author”:

University of Minnesota. (1985). Social Psychology. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

U.S. Census Bureau. (2000). Statistical Abstract of the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

An editor as “author”:

Updike, J. (Ed.). (1999). The Best American Short Stories of the Century. Boston: Houghton Mifflin

An edition of an author’s work:

Brockett, O. (1987). History of the Theatre (5th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

A translation:

Freud, S. (1970). An Outline of Psychoanalysis (J. Strachey, Trans.). New York: Norton (Original work published 1940)

A work in a series:

Cousins, M. (1984). Michel Foucault. Theoretical Traditions in the Social Sciences. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

A work in several volumes:

Wilson, J. G., & Fraser, F. C. (Eds.). (1977-1978). Handbook of Teratology (Vols. 1-4). New York: Plenum Press.

Conference proceedings:

Schnase, J. L., & Cunnius, E. L. (Eds.). (1995). Proceedings of CSCL '95: The First InternationalConference on Computer Support for Collaborative Learning. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Chapter in an edited book:

Rubenstein, J.P. (1967). The Effect of Television Violence on Small Children. In B. F. Kane (Ed.), Television and Juvenile Psychological Development (pp. 112-134). New York: American Psychological Society.


Journal / periodical (continuous pagination):

Prasart Nuangchalerm (2011). In-service Science Teaches’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Studies in Sociology of Science, 2(2),35-39.

Journal / periodical (non-continuous pagination):

Sawyer, J. (1966). Measurement and Prediction, Clinical and Statistical. Psychological Bulletin, 66(3), 178-200.

Journal article with three to seven authors:

Huang, Yanbo, Lan, Yubin, Hoffmann,W. C., & Lacey, R. E.(2011). A Pixel-Level Method for Multiple Imaging Sensor Data Fusion through Artificial Neural Networks. Advances in Natural Science, 4(1), 1-13.

Journal article more than seven authors:

Akaria, Z., Hussin, Z. H., Zakaria, Z., Noordin, N. B., Hilmie M.Z., Sawal, B.M., Saad, S. F.,...Kamil, S. B. O. (2009). E-Filing System Practiced by Inland Revenue Board (IRB): Perception towards Malaysian Taxpayers. Cross-cultural Communication, 5(4).10-20.


Monson, M. (1993, September 16). Urbana Firm Obstacle to Office Project. The Champaign-Urbana News-Gazette, pp. 1, 8.


Raloff, J. (2001, May 12). Lead Therapy Won’t Help Most Kids. Science News, 159, 292.


Gleick, E. (2000, December 14). The Burdens of Genius [Review of the book The Last Samurai by H. DeWitt]. Time, 156, 171.

Article in a reference book or encyclopedia - signed and unsigned:

Sturgeon, T. (1995). Science fiction. In The Encyclopedia Americana (Vol. 24, pp. 390-392). Danbury, CT: Grolier.

Islam. (1992). In The New Encyclopedia Britannica (Vol. 22, pp. 1-43). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.

A work in a collection or anthology:

Jesrani, P. J. (1998). Working Turn Tables. In N. Bhatia, S. Dhand, & V. Rupaleria (Eds.), Throwing a Great Party (pp. 19-48). Chicago: NT Publishers.

Shapcott, T. (1980). Margaret Atwood's Surfacing. In K. L. Goodwin (Ed.), Commonwealth Literature in the Curriculum (pp. 86). South Pacific Association of Common-wealth Literatures and Language Studies.

Paper published as part of the proceedings of a conference:

Nicol, D. M., & Liu X. (1997). The Dark Side of Risk (What Your Mother Never Told You About Time Warp). In Proceedings of the 11th Workshop on Parallel and Distributed Simulation, Lockenhaus, Austria, 10–13 June 1997 (pp. 188–195). Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society.


Obtained from university:

Carlson, W. R. (1977). Dialectic and Rhetoric in Pierre Bayle. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation).Yale University, USA.

Obtained from Dissertations and Theses database:

Mancall, J. C. (1979). Resources Used by High School Students in Preparing Independent Study projects: A bibliometric Approach (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. AAT 7905069)

An abstract from DAI:

Delgado, V. (1997). An Interview Study of Native American Philosophical Foundations in Education. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section A. Humanities and Social Sciences, 58(9), 3395.

Other materials


Islam. (1992). In The New Encyclopedia Britannica (Vol. 22, pp. 1-43). Chicago: Encyclopedia Lemelson, J.H. (1981). U.S. Patent No. 4,285,338. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Video or DVD (motion pictures):

Jesrani, P. J. (1998). Working Turn Tables. In N. Bhatia, S. Dhand, & V. Rupaleria (Eds.), Mass, J. B. (Producer), & Gluck, D. H. (Director). (1979). Deeper into Hypnosis [Motion picture]. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Television program:

Pratt, C. (Executive Producer). (2001, December 2). Face the Nation [Television broadcast]. Washington, DC: CBS News.

Personal communications (email messages, interviews, lectures, and telephone conversations):

Because the information is not retrievable it should not appear in the reference list. In your paper they should look as follows: J. Burnitz (personal communication, September 20, 2000) indicated that.… or In a recent interview (J. Burnitz, personal communication, September 20, 2000).

Books (Online)

An entire electronic book retrieved from a database:

Murray, T. H. (1996). The Worth of a Child. Berkeley: University of California Press. Retrieved from netLibrary database.

An entire electronic book with direct link to item:

Bryant, P. (1999). Biodiversity and Conservation. Retrieved from

An article or chapter in an electronic book

Symonds, PM. (1958). Human drives. In C. L. Stacey & M. DeMartino (Eds.), Understanding Human Motivation (pp. 11-22). Retrieved from PsycBOOKS database.

Entire electronic technical or research report - available on the web:

Russo, A. C., & Jiang, H. J. (2006). Hospital Stays among Patients with Diabetes, 2004 (Statistical Brief #17). Retrieved from Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality:

Paper from the proceedings of a conference:

Miller, S. (2000). Introduction to Manufacturing Simulation. In Proceedings of the 2000 Winter Simulation Conference, (pp. 63-66). Retrieved from

Journal Articles (Online)

New style guidelines use the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) which is an assigned alpha-numeric code that usually appears on the article or in the database record. If the DOI is not provided, enter the citation information using Cross/Ref Simple Text Query <>. The retrieval date is no longer required.

Article with DOI assigned:

Demir, Müge (2011). Using Nonverbal Communication in Politics. Canadian Social Science, 7(5), 1-14. DOI:10.3968/J.css.1923669720110705.19

Article from electronic journal (no print version):

Phouphet KYOPHILAVONG,Jeff BENNETT(2011).Willingness to Pay for Cleaning up Road Dust in Vientiane. Retrieved from International Business and Management,

Article with no DOI: (include URL for journal website not database)

Tyrer, Pat (2011). Food and Fantasy as Reflection of Female Repression in Like Water for Chocolate. Studies in Literature and Language, 3(2), 1-5. Retrieved from

Article - preprint version

Shi,Guangren (in press). Finite Volume Method for Solving a Modified 3-D 3-Phase Black-Oil. Journal of Advances in Petroleum Exploration and Development. Retrieved from

Newspaper article from an online database:

Altman, L. K. (2001, January 18). Mysterious Illnesses often Turn Out to be Mass Hysteria. New York Times. Retrieved from the ProQuest Newspapers database.

A newspaper article from newspaper’s website:

Cary, B. (2001, June 18). Mentors of the Mind. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from

company information from a database:

Ingersoll-Rand Company Limited. (2004). Company Profile. Retrieved July 29, 2008 from Hoovers in Lexis-Nexis.

An article posted on an open-access or personal website:

Cain, A., & Burris, M. (1999, April). Investigation of the Use of Mobile Phones while Driving. Retrieved from

Archer, Z. (n.d.). Exploring Nonverbal Communication. Retrieved from

A cd-rom publication:

Reporter, M. (1996, April 13). Electronic Citing Guidelines Needed [CD-ROM]. New York Times, (late ed.), p. c1. Retrieved from New York Times Ondisc.


Website of an organization or government:

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. (2001). Glacial Habitat Restoration Areas. Retrieved from

Midwest League. (n.d.). Pitching, Individual Records. Retrieved from

A personal homepage: (retrieval date is included due to possibility of change)

Duncan, D. (1998, August 1). Homepage. Retrieved July 30, 2007 from

A posting to an online discussion group or listserv:

Marcy, B. (1999, April 3). Think They'll Find any Evidence of Mallory & Irvine [electronic mailing list message]. Retrieved from

A blog post:

MiddleKid. (2007, January 22). The Unfortunate Prerequisites and Consequences of Partitioning Your Mind [Web log message]. Retrieved from

An online video:

Norton, R. (2006, November 4). How to Train a Cat to Operate a Light Switch [Video file]. Retrieved from

NOTE: The URL should not be underlined. Sometimes underlining appears automatically when a URL is displayed in a browser or in Word. Remove the underlining before submitting your paper.



Content footnotes are occasionally used to support substantive information in the text (or to acknowledge copyright permission status). They begin on a separate page with a heading centered on the first line below the manuscript page header. The first line of each footnote is indented 5-7 spaces and they are numbered with Arabic superscript numerals following punctuation marks within the text.



Tables should each be presented portrait (not landscape) direction and upright on the page, not sideways. Tables have a short, one-line title in bold text. Tables should be no larger than one page (140mm*180mm). Symbols and abbreviations are definite immediately below the table, followed by essential descriptive material as briefly as possible, all in double-spaced text. We also use APA format on tables you can visit for detail information. Here is the example. We strongly advise you to put your tables at the relevant places in your article not in the end of your article.

Table 1

Error Rates of Older and Younger Groups


Number Group1 Group 2 Total Older 1 Younger 1


1 A11 A21 A31 A51 Y1

2 A12 A22 A32 A52 Y2

3 … … … ... 5

… … … … …

n A1n A2n A3n A5n Yn


Top line: 0.5 pt

Middle line: 0.25 pt

Bottom line: 0.75 pt



CSCanada requires figures in electronic format. Figures should be as small and simple as is compatible with clarity. The goal is for figures to be comprehensible to readers in other or related disciplines, and to assist their understanding of the paper. Unnecessary figures and parts (panels) of figures should be avoided. Avoid unnecessary complexity, colorful and over amount of details. For instruction, CSCanada standard figure sizes are 95mm (single column) and 190mm (double column) and the full depth of the page is 283mm. We strongly advise you to put your figures at the relevant places in your article not in the end of your article. The figures also are suggested in APA format you can visit for detail information.

• Units should have a single space between the number and the unit, and follow SI nomenclature or the nomenclature common to a particular field. Thousands should be separated by commas (1,000). Unusual units or abbreviations are defined in the legend. Scale bars should be used rather than magnification factors. Where possible, text, including keys to symbols, should be provided in the legend rather than on the figure itself. At initial submission, figures should be at good quality to be assessed by referees, ideally as JPEGs, PNGs, and BMPs.



Editorials are the voice of the journal and are written by the journal's editorial-writing team and usually present commentary and analysis concerning an article in the issue of the journal in which they appear. They may include 3 figures or tables. They are nearly always solicited, although unsolicited editorials may occasionally be considered. Editorials are limited to 1500 words, with up to 30 references.


We are seeking qualified researchers and scholars to join our editorial team as editors, sub-editors or reviewers. For more information, please send an email to:,,


All CSCanada journals welcome innovative contributions. The host organizations of our 14 journals are Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture, Canadian Research & Development Center of Sciences and Cultures with their headquarter in Montreal, Canada registered in Quebec and are committed to scientific research and spreading eastern and western cultures. Please submit your paper according to our guide on the website


All CSCanada journals are international, peer-reviewed, Open-Access journals. Articles published by our journals are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial License, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non commercial and is otherwise in compliance with the license. Authors of accepted articles must pay a publication fee. The related standards are as follows. Publication fee in 2012: $300 USD per article. After the payment is done, authors have to send the proof of payment to related email address.


Studies in Literature and Language is indexed and included and archived by databases from the following famous companies or organizations:

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The journal indexed in Ulrich’s (

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Online Submission


How to do online submission to another Journal?

If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:

1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author

Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.

2. Submission

Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.

We only use three mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases:;;

 Articles published in Studies in Literature and Language are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY).


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