Unconscious Resistance Against Althusserian Ideology in Tobias Wolff’s Short Story Bullet in the Brain in the Light of Raymond Williams and Terry Eagleton
This paper discusses individual’s determinism caused by ideology; in fact, it is an attempt to show how people in a society are under the influence of the ideology and how these different forms of ideology change people’s view toward life and thus change their whole lives. Being doomed to live and think in a way that ideology requires a subject, or being trapped and therefore living in a world like that of stories are other notions which are talked over in this paper. Deterministic or non-deterministic panorama toward the ideological world of the characters in “Bullet in the Brain” a short story by Tobias Wolff is the work under analysis by the researchers. As the first step, the researchers have identified the ideologies governing the given story. The second step to take was to find traces of resistance toward those power(s) subjected to individuals by the dominant ideology in the society portrayed by the writer of the story. The core fact that makes such a research a novel one is the fact that the form of resistance studied in this story is not a conscious one; although getting its roots from the conscious world of ideas, the whole process of movement against the ideology takes place unintentionally after a drastic change in existence of the protagonist of the short story.
Key words: Ideology; Althusserian or ideological individual; Subject; Hegemony; Resistance; Natural and normal
Althusser, Luis. (1969). For Marx (B. Brewster., Trans.). New York: Verso.
Althusser, Luis. (1971). Lenin and Philosophy, and Other Essays (B. Brewster., Trans.). London: New Left Books; New York: Monthly Review Press.
Althusser, Luis. (1976). Essays in Self-Criticism (G. Lock. London, Trans.). NJ: Humanities Press.
Althusser, Louis, & Balibar, É. (1970). Reading Capital (B. Brewster., Trans.). London and New York: Verso.
Barboni, Patrizia. (1994). Dirty Realism: Raymond Carver, Tobias Wolff, Richard Ford. Bologna, Italy: University of Bologna.
Eagleton, Terry. (1991). Ideology: An Introduction. London and New York: Verso.
Eagleton, Terry. (1976). Criticism and Ideology: A Study in Marxist Literary Theory. London and New York: Verso.
Hannah, James. (1996). Tobias Wolff: A Study of the Short Fiction. New York: Twayne.
Macherey, Pierre. (1978). A Theory of Literary Production (G. Wall, Trans.). London and New York: Routledge.
Macherey, Pierre. (1995). The Object of Literature (D. Macey, Trans.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
Parini, Jay, ed. (2001).American Writers, 7. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
Rivkin, Julie, & Michael Ryan, ed. (2004). Literary Theory - An Anthology. UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 1998-2004.
Sinfield, Alan. (1992). Faultlines: Cultural Materialism and the Politics of Dissident Reading. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Tyson, Lois. (2006). Critical Theory Today. London and New York.
Williams, Raymond. (1977). Marxism and Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Williams, Raymond. (1961).Culture and Society. Harmondsworth: penguin.
Wolff, Tobias. (1996). The Night in Question: Stories. New York: Knopf.
Woodruff, Jay. (1993).A Piece of Work: Five Writers Discuss Their Revisions. Lowa City: Iowa University Press.
- There are currently no refbacks.
If you have already registered in Journal A and plan to submit article(s) to Journal B, please click the CATEGORIES, or JOURNALS A-Z on the right side of the "HOME".
We only use three mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
Copyright © 2010 Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture
Address: 758, 77e AV, Laval, Quebec, H7V 4A8, Canada
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138
E-mail: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com