An Interlanguage Pragmatic Study of Saudis’ Complaints

Nader Muhaya Rashidi

Abstract


This study investigated the strategies monolingual Saudi Arabian adults (MSAAs), Saudi EFL adult learners (SEFLALs), and native speakers of English (ENSs) used when complaining. Another related aim was investigating whether SEFLALs displayed pragmatic transfer when using complaint strategies. A total of 183 written responses were collected from MSAAs, SEFLALs, and ENSs via a three-item discourse completion task (DCT) were analyzed. Findings revealed the strategies used by the study participants when performing the speech act of complaints. First, hints, request and annoyance were the most frequently used strategies by MSAAs, SEFLALs, and ENSs. Second, there were no statistically significant differences among MSAAs, SEFLALs, and ENSs in using the strategy of direct accusation which consistent with the concept of positive pragmatic transfer. Third, hints, behavioral blame, request and indirect accusation were cases of weak negative pragmatic transfer as employed the SEFLALs in the current study. Fourth, modified blame was consistent with concept of strong negative pragmatic transfer. Finally, the last two strategies; annoyance and threat were consistent with no transfer, that is, SEFLAL employed these two strategies as ENSs.

 


Keywords


Complaints; Pragmatic transfer; Speech acts

Full Text:

PDF

References


Arent, R. (1996). Sociopragmatic decisions regarding complaints by Chinese learners and NSs of American English. Hong Kong Journal of Applied Linguistics, 1(1), 125-147.

Austin, J. L. (1962). How to do things with words. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Bonikowska, M. P. (1988). The choice of opting out. Applied Linguistics, 9(2), 169-181.

Boxer, D. (1993a). Social distance and speech behavior: The case of indirect complaints. Journal of Pragmatics, 19(2), 103-125.

Boxer, D. (1993b). Complaining and commiserating: A speech act view of solidarity in spoken American English. New York: Peter Lang.

Boxer, D. (1996). Ethnographic interviewing as a research tool in speech act analysis: The case of complaints. In S. M. Gass & J. Neu (Eds.), Speech acts across cultures: Challenges to communication in a second language (pp.217-239). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Brown, P., & Levinson, S. (1987). Politeness: Some universals in language usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Brown, P., & Levinson, S. C. (1987). Politeness: Some universals in language usage. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

Bukowski, M. (1988). The choice of opting out. Applied Linguistics, 9(2), 169-181.

Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of linguistic theory. MIT Press.

Deveci, T. (2015). The complaint speech act set produced by university students speaking English as a foreign language. Literacy Information and Computer Education Journal (LICEJ), 4(1), 2161-2171.

Eslami-Rasekh, Z. (2004). Face-keeping strategies in reaction to complaints: English and Persian. Journal of Asian Pacific Communication, 14(1), 181-197.

Grimshaw, A. (1990). Conflict talk: Sociolinguistic investigations of arguments in conversation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Grundy, P. (2000). Doing pragmatics. Oxford University Press.

House, J., & Kasper, G. (1981). Politeness markers in English and German. In F. Coulmas (Ed.), Conversational routine: Explorations in standardized communication situations and prepatterned speech, Vol.2 (pp.157-185). The Hague, the Netherlands: Mouton Publishers.

Hymes, D. H. (1972). On communicative competence. In J. B. Pride & J. Holmes (Eds.), Sociolinguistics (pp.269-293). Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Jarbou, S. (2002). Speech act stylistics a cross linguistic, cross cultural study of directive speech acts in selected shakespearean plays and their arabic translations. Indiana University of Pennsylvania.

Kasper, G., & Rose, K. (1999). Pragmatics and SLA. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 19(1), 81-104

Kasper, G. (1992). Pragmatic transfer. Second Language Research, 8(3), 203-231.

Kasper, G. (1996). Introduction: Interlanguage pragmatics in SLA. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 18(2), 145-148.

Kasper, G. (1998). Interlanguage pragmatics. In H. Byrnes (Ed.), Learning foreign and second languages: Perspectives in research and scholarship (pp.183-208). New York: Modern Language Association of America.

Kasper, G., & Rose, K. R. (2002). Pragmatic development in a second language. MA: Blackwell Publishing, Inc.

Mayouf, H. H. (2013). The speech acts of complaint as realized by Iraqi Arabic speakers. Journal of Human Sciences, 1(14), 362-381.

Olshtain, E., & Cohen, A. (1990). The learning of complex speech act behaviour. TESL Canada Journal, 7(2), 45-65.

Olshtain, E., & Weinbach, L. (1993). Interlanguage features of the speech act of complaining. In G. Kasper & S. Blum-Kulka (Eds.), Interlanguage pragmatics (pp.108-122). New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Olshtain, E., & Weinbach, L. (1993). Interlanguage features of the speech act of complaining. In G. Kasper & S. Blum-Kulka (Eds.), Interlanguage pragmatics (pp.108-122). Oxford University Press.

Olshtain, E., & Weinbach, L. (1987). Complaints: A study of speech act behavior among native and non-native speakers of Hebrew. In J. Verschueren & M. Bertucelli-Papi (Eds.), The pragmatic perspective (pp.195-208). Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Benjamins.

Piotrowska, M. (1987). An investigation into the sociolinguistic competence of Hong Kong university students with specific reference to making complaints (Unpublished M.A. dissertation). Hong Kong University.

Schaefer, E. (1982). An analysis of the discourse and syntax of oral complaints in English (Unpublished master’s thesis). University of California, Los Angeles, CA.

Searle, J. (1969). Speech acts: An essay in the philosophy of language. London, England: Cambridge University Press.

Searle, J. R. (1975). Indirect speech acts. In P. Cole & J. Morgan (Eds). Syntax and Semantics, Vol.3 (pp.59-82). New York: Academic Press.

Searle, J. R. (1979). Expression and meaning: Studies in the theory of speech acts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Selinker, L. (1972). Interlanguage. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching (IRAL), 10(3), 209-231.

Shardakova, M. (2009). Intercultural pragmatics of the apology: How Americans acquire sociolinguistic competence in Russian. Saarbrucken: VDM Verlag Dr. Muller.

Shea, H. K. (2003). Japanese complaining in English: A study of interlanguage pragmatics (Unpublished doctoral thesis). Columbia University, New York. Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Database.

Spees, H. (1994). A cross-cultural study of indirectness. Issues in Applied Linguistics, 5(2), 231-253.

Tanck, S. (2002). Speech act sets of refusal and complaint: A comparison of native and non-native English speakers’ production. Paper presented for TESL 523 Second Language Acquisition class at American University, Washington, DC.

Thomas, J. (1983). Cross-cultural pragmatic failure. Applied Linguistics, 4(2), 91-112.

Tran, G. (2002). Pragmatic transfer and discourse transfer in complaining. Melbourne Papers in Linguistics and Applied Linguistics, 2(2), 71-98.

Trosborg, A. (1995). Interlanguage pragmatics: Requests, complaints and apologies. New York, NY: Mouton de Gruyter.

Umar, A. M. A. T. (2006). The speech act of complaint as realized by advanced Sudanese learners of English. Umm Al-Qura University Journal of Educational Social Sciences and Humanities, 18(2), 9-40.

Yamagashira, H. (2001). Pragmatic transfer in Japanese ESL refusals. Pragmatic Transfer, 31(1), 259-275.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968/n

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 Nader Muhaya Al Rashidi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Share us to:   


Reminder

How to do online submission to another Journal?

If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:

1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author

Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.

2. Submission

Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.


We only use three mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases: caooc@hotmail.com; sll@cscanada.net; sll@cscanada.org

 Articles published in Studies in Literature and Language are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY).

 STUDIES IN LITERATURE AND LANGUAGE Editorial Office

Address: 1020 Bouvier Street, Suite 400, Quebec City, Quebec, G2K 0K9, Canada. 
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138 
Website: Http://www.cscanada.net; Http://www.cscanada.org 
E-mailoffice@cscanada.net; office@cscanada.org; caooc@hotmail.com

Copyright © 2010 Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture