A Review Research of Washback in Language Testing

Xin HU


Washback is an important concept in language testing. It reflects the effect of the testing. Based on washback, modification and optimization can be made to face the need of teachers and learners. This article aims to make a review research on washback at home and abroad to find a new direction for future research. The research is based on proper journal articles on both core international journals and CNKI. In line with all related articles, three main aspects of washback research - theoretical models, positive and negative washback effects - are illustrated. Theoretical models contribute to empirical research and help to better understand washback. Negative washback is a common phenomenon in testing so that possible reasons causing the phenomenon will be mainly discussed. Positive washback is usually generated by making some updates. This research provides an insight into a multi-method study with the other field - test ethics - in the educational system.


Washback; Language testing; Test ethics

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968/12122


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