Effects of Interactive Read-Aloud and Sustained Silent Reading Strategies on Achievement and Interest in Reading in Gambian Secondary Schools

Oladotun Opeoluwa Olagbaju, Olubunmi Racheal Babalola


Reading is an indispensable tool for academic success globally and access to good quality of life in the 21st century. As an aspect of English language instruction in Gambian schools, reading is not being properly taught and it is evident that students are losing interest in reading as the culture of reading is gradually fading away from schools. These problems have been identified as some of the factors responsible for the perennial mass failure in English language examinations. Therefore, this study examined the effect of Interactive Read-Aloud and Sustained Silent Reading Instructional Strategies on students’ achievement and interest in reading. Also, the moderating effect of vocabulary knowledge on students’ achievement and attitude was investigated. The study employed a pretest, posttest quasi-experimental design to test three null hypotheses using two treatment groups and a control. Results showed that Interactive Read-Aloud and Sustained Silent Reading had significant main effect on students’ learning outcomes while vocabulary knowledge had no significant effect. Also, there was no interaction effect of treatment and vocabulary knowledge on learning outcomes in reading. Recommendations were made on how to improve the quality of instruction, students’ achievement and interest in English language.


Interactive read-aloud; Sustained silent reading; Interest; Achievement; Reading

Full Text:



Adebiyi, E. F. (2012). Effects of explicit and generative instructional strategies on students’ achievement in reading comprehension in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State. An unpublished M. Ed Project submitted to the Department of Teacher Education, University of Ibadan, Ibadan.

Al-Mansour, N., & Al-Shorman, R. (2011). The effect of teacher’s storytelling aloud in the reading comprehension of Saudi elementary stage students. Journal of King Saud University – Languages and Translation, 23, 69-76.

Alshehri, M. (2014). Improving reading comprehension for Saudi students by using the reading aloud strategy. An unpublised Master’s Thesis, State University of New York, Fredonia, New York.

Amuseghan, S. A. (2007, June). ESL curriculum in secondary schools in Nigeria: Issues and challenges towards communicative competence. Nebula, 4(2), 320-334.

Asgaria, M., Ketabi, S., & Amirian, Z. (2019). Interest-based language teaching: Enhancing students’ interest and achievement in L2 reading. Iranian Journal of Language Teaching Research, 7(1), (Jan., 2019) 61-75. Retrieved online 3rd December, 2019 from www.ijltr.urmia.ac.ir Iranian

Barrs, M. (2002). Girls and boys as readers and writers. Retrieved January 1, 2004 from http://www.oise.utoronto.ca/orbit/struggling_readers_sample.html

Beers, K. 2003. When kids can‘t read: what teachers can do. Retrieved 17th October, 20

Bridges, L. (2014). The joy of power of reading. A summary of research and expert opinion. Scholastic: Open a world of possible.

Chaudron, C. (1998). Second language classrooms: research on teaching and learning. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Fountas, I.C. & Pinnell, G. (2009). Genre study: Teaching with fiction and nonfiction books. NY: Scholastic.

Fountas, I. C., & Pinnell, G. S. (2001). Guiding readers and writers grades 3-6: Teaching comprehension, genre and content literacy. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Gibson, S. (2008). Reading aloud: a useful learning tool? ELT Journal, 62(1), 29-36.

Grabe, W. (2009). Reading as a Second Language: Moving from Theory to Practice. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-72974-1. Archived from the original on 2018-05-04. Koda, 2005:4

Hadfield, J. and Hadfield, C. (2008). Introduction to teaching English. Oxford University Press: Portugal.

Harmer, J. (2007). The practice of English language teaching. Pearson Education Limited. Essex, England.

Hasbrouck, J. (2006). For students who are not yet fluent, silent reading is not the best use of classroom time. American Educator, Summer, 30(2).

Hazenberg, S., & Hulstijn, J. (1996). Defining a minimal receptive second language vocabulary for non-native university students: An empirical investigation. Appl Linguist, 17, 145-163.

Hazzard, K. (2016). The effects of read aloud on student comprehension.

Hornby, A. S. (2005). Oxford advanced learner’s dictionary. Oxford University Press.

Hidi, S. (2001). Interest, reading, and learning: Theoretical and practical considerations. Educational Psychology Review, 13(3).

Hidi, S., & Renninger, K. (2006). The four-phase model of interest development. Educational Psychologist, 41(2), 111-127.

Hidi, S., & Anderson, V. (1986). Producing written summaries: Task demands, cognitive operations, and implications for instruction. Review of Educational Research, 56(4), 473-493.

Hirvela, A. (2004). Connecting reading and writing in second language writing instruction. The Michigan series on teaching multilingual writers. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.

Junias R. (2009). Factors affecting the teaching of English reading skills in a second language of grade 3. Unpublished M.Ed Thesis. Ongwediva: Namibia.

Kailani, T. Z. (1998). Reading aloud in EFL revisited. Reading in a foreign language, 12(1), 281-294.

Krashen, S.D. (2011). Free voluntary reading. Santa Barbara: Libraries Unlimited.

Laufer B. (1989) A factor of difficulty in vocabulary learning: Deceptive transparency. AILA Rev., 6, 10-20.

McCallum, R.S., Sharp, S., Bell, S. M., & George, T. (2004). Silent versus oral reading comprehension and efficiency. Psychology in the Schools, 41(2), 241-246.

McCormick, S. (1977). Should you read aloud to your children? Languages Arts, 54, 139–163.

Mork, T. A. (1972). Sustained silent reading in the classroom. The Reading Teacher, 25(5), 438-441.

Morrison, V., & Wheeler, L. (2009). Revisiting read-alouds: Instructional strategies that encourage students’ engagement with text. Retrieved online 16th January, 2020 from www.readingrockets.org/article/revisiting-read-alouds-instructional-strategies-encourage-students-engagement-text

Muhammad, K., Mehmood, S., & Hafizoah, K. (2019). Comparison of reading aloud strategies versus silent reading strategies used on Pakistani University students’ reading comparison for reading proficiency and literal reading skills. European Journal of Education Studies, 5(9), 112-131. Retrieved 11th January, 2020 from www.oapub.org/edu

National Reading Panel. (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health.

Oya, T., Manalo, E., & Greenwood, J. (2009). The influence of language contact and vocabulary knowledge on the speaking performance of Japanese students of English. The Open Applied Linguistics Journal, 2, 11-21

Read, J. (2000). Assessing vocabulary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Republic of the Gambia, National Accreditation and Quality Assurance Authority (NAQAA). (2019). Minimum requirement for admission to tertiary and higher education institutions in the Gambia. (NAQAA). Kanifing Institutional Layout, Th Gambia.

Saville-Troike M. (1984). What really matters in second language learning for academic achievement? TESOL Q., 17, 199-219.

Schimmel, N., & Ness, M. (2017). The effects of oral and silent reading on reading comprehension. Reading Psychology, 38(4), 390-416.

Trelease, J. (1994). The read-aloud handbook. Retrieved 12th January, 2020 from http://www.penguinusablog.com/category/authors-desk/jim-trelease-the-read-aloud-handbook/

Van Keer, H. (2004). Fostering reading comprehension in fifth grade by explicit instruction in reading strategies and peer tutoring. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 74, 37–70.

Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind in Society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

West African Examinations Council (2013). Regulations and syllabus (2013-2018) for the West African Senior School Certificate examination (WASSCE). Lagos: WAEC Press.

Wiseman, A. (2011). Interactive read-alouds: Teachers and students constructing knowledge and literacy together. Early Childhood Education Journal, 38(6), 431-438.

Yoon, J. C. (2002). The effectiveness of sustained silent reading on reading attitude and reading comprehension of fourth-grade Korean students.

Zamanian, F. (2014). A comparative study between the effects of interactive read-aloud and sustained silent reading on Iranian EFL learners ‘ reading comprehension. An unpublished master’s project from the Islamic Azad University - Tehran Central Branch.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968/11770


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Oladotun Opeoluwa Olagbaju

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Share us to:   


Online Submissionhttp://cscanada.org/index.php/sll/submission/wizard


How to do online submission to another Journal?

If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:

1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author

Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.

2. Submission

Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.

We only use three mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases: caooc@hotmail.com; sll@cscanada.net; sll@cscanada.org

 Articles published in Studies in Literature and Language are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY).


Address: 1055 Rue Lucien-L'Allier, Unit #772, Montreal, QC H3G 3C4, Canada.
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138 
Website: Http://www.cscanada.net; Http://www.cscanada.org 
E-mailoffice@cscanada.net; office@cscanada.org; caooc@hotmail.com

Copyright © 2010 Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture