Computer Anxiety and Computer Self-Efficacy as Predictors of Iranian EFL Learners’ Performance on the Reading Section of the TOEFL iBT

Seyed Abolghassem Fatemi Jahromi, Alma Forouzan, Razieh Gholaminejad


The present study attempted to find out which of the two variables of computer anxiety and computer self-efficacy can best predict Iranian EFL learners’ performance on the reading section of the TOEFL iBT and whether there is any relationship between computer anxiety and computer self-efficacy. To this end, 75 English major participants, both male and female were administered two questionnaires including Computer Anxiety Rating Scale (CARS) and Computer Self-Efficacy Scale (CSES), as well as the reading section of the TOEFL iBT. Also, the participants’ proficiency level was determined using their scores on the Oxford Quick Placement Test (OQPT). This study was carried out at Alzahra University, University of Tehran, and Allame Tabataba'ei University. The collected data were analyzed through multiple regression and correlation procedures. The findings revealed that there are no significant differences between computer anxiety and computer self-efficacy as predictors of Iranian EFL learners’ TOEFL iBT reading comprehension. Therefore, both independent variables were found to be effective in predicting learners’ performance, with the effect of self-efficacy being stronger. Additionally, a significant relationship was found between Iranian EFL learners’ computer anxiety and computer self-efficacy. That is to say, computer anxiety modestly affects self-efficacy and vice versa. The results of the study may be helpful for both teachers and test takers.


Computer Anxiety, Computer Self-Efficacy, TOEFL iBT, predictors of reading comprehension, technology

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