Comparison of the Forest Tenure in Brazil and China

Jinyu SHEN, Xiao HAN, Yali WEN, Yi XIE


Brazil and China both have extensive forest areas in the world, making important contribution to reversal of the worldwide decline in forest. And as the world’s leading importers and exporters of timber and timber-based products, sustainable forest management for both countries are crucial for global economy and environment, so there is an intense international interest in their sustainability and well-being. Tenure arrangements functioned as powerful tools of forest policy, is not only important for economic growth, social cohesion, poverty reduction and environmental protection - it is also essential for climate change mitigation.
This paper is to present and analyze the state of forest tenure in Brazil and China; then followed by a brief comparison of these two countries in terms of changing trends and reform impacts; Furthermore, it identifies some of the main challenges to the reform and points our several opportunities for extending the future forest tenure reform especially for mitigating climate change, and finally making a conclusion to widen the reach of local community tenure and to deepen the exercise of tenure rights.


Forest tenure; Forest-based communities and indigenousness people; Sustainable forest management

Full Text:



Baran, P. (1962). The political economy of growth. New York: Monthly Review.

Beyond the national state: Functional and international organisation. (1964).

Business Week. ( 1994). Oct. (10), 18-19.

Business Week.(1999). Dec. (13), 20.

Business Week. (1999). Nov. (15), 49.

Business Week. (1999). Sept. (19), 41-42.

Cockcroft, J. D., Frank, A. G., & Johnson, D. L. (1970). (Eds.) Dependence and underdevelopment: Latin America’s political economy. New York: Doubleday.

Deutsch, K. W. (1954) Political Community at the international level: Problems of definition and measurement. New York: Doubleday.

ECOWAS News Update. (2001, May 3). (45).

ECOWAS News Update. (2001, 16 February). (17).

ECOWAS News Update. (2001, 9 March). (23).

ECOWAS News Update. (2001, 30 July). (30).

ECOWAS News Update. (2001, 29 March). (33).

ECOWAS News Update. (2001, 9 April). (36).

ECOWAS News Update. (2001, 12 April). (37).

ECOWAS News Update. (2001, 19 April). (40).

ECOWAS News Update. (2001, 24 April). (43).

ECOWAS News Update. (2001, 10 May). (48).

ECOWAS News Update. (18 May, 2001). (50).

ECOWAS News Update. (17 May, 2001). (51).

ECOWAS News Update. (18 June, 2001). (58).

ECOWAS News Update. (23 July, 2001). (64).

ECOWAS News Update. (25 July, 2001). (66).

ECOWAS News Update. (2001, 22 January). (8).

ECOWAS News Update. (2001, 15 February). (16).

ECOWAS News Update. (2001, 12 April). (38).

ECQWAS News Update. (2001, 16 Febi-; JOi). (19).

Fafowara, O. O. (1998). Management imparative of globalization. Management in Nigeria, 34(2-4), 365 -370.

Haas, E. B., & Philippe, G. S. (1964). Economic and differential patterns of political integration: Projections about unity in Latin America. International Organisation, 18, 705-737.

Haas. E. B. (1961). International integration: The European and universal process. International Organisation, 15, 306-392.

Haas, E. B. (1964). Beyond the national state: Functional and international organization. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Haas, E. B. (1968). The uniting of Europe: Political, social and economic forces 1950-1957. Stanford: Stanford Univ. Press.

Jacob. E. P., & Tescano, H. (1964). The integration process: Guideline for analysis of the bases of political community. In P. E. Jacob & J. V. Tescano (Eds), The integration of political communities. Philadelphia; Lippincott.

Kemp, T. (1980). The Marxist theory of imperialism. In R. Owen & B. Sutcliff (Eds.), Studies in the theory of imperialism. London: Longman.

Kwanashie, M. (1998). The concept and process of globalization. CBN Economic and Financial Review, 36 (A), 340-351.

Lindberg, L. (1963). The political dynamics of European economic integration. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Lindberg, L. (1965). 11 decision making and integration in the European community. International Organisation, 19, 50-80.

Magdoff, H. (1980). Imperialism without colonies. In R. Owen & B. Sutchiff (Eds.), Studies in the theory of imperialism. London: Longman.

Mitrany, D. (1966). Working peace system. Chicago: Quadrangle Books.

Nemedia, C. E. (1998). Merits and demerit of globalization process. CBN Economic and Financial Review, 36(4), 405-414.

Odozi, V. A. (1998). Trends in the globalization of the world economy and implications for Niooria. CBN Economicend Financial Review, 36(4), 330-333.

Oloyede, A. (1998). Regional political and economic groupings as vehicles for the globalization. CBN Economic and Financial Review, 36(4), 365-370.

Olusanya. G. A. (1998). Preparing Nigeria managers for globalization. Management in Nigeria, 34(2-4).

Osagie, E. (1976). Elements of economics. Benin City: Ethiop Publishers.

Political community and the North Atlantic Area. (1957). Princeton: Princeton

Schmitter, P. G. (1969). The neo-functional hypothesis about international integration. International Organisation, 23(1).

Schmitter. P. G. (1970). A revised theory of regional integration. International Organisation, 24(4).

The Economist (1995). Dec. 9-15. pp.13-14.

The Economist. (1988). April 22-29. pp.81-84.

The Economist. (1995). June 17-23. p.85.

The Economist. (1999). Jan. 30-Feb. 15. p.17.

The functional approach to world organisation. (1948). International Affairs, 24(3).

The progress of international government. (1933). New Heaven: Yale University Press.

The road to security. (1944). London: National Peace Council.

The uniting of Europe: Political, social and economic forces 1950-1957. (1968). Stanford: Stanford Univ. Press.

Time (US) Magazine (2000). February. p.48.

Viner, J. (1950). Custom union theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c)


  • How to do online submission to another Journal?
  • If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:

1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author

  • Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.

2. Submission

Online Submission

  • Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.
  • We only use four mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases:;;;

 Articles published in Canadian Social Science are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY).


Canadian Social Science Editorial Office

Address: 1020 Bouvier Street, Suite 400, Quebec City, Quebec, G2K 0K9, Canada.
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138 
Website: Http://; Http://;

Copyright © Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture