A Study on the Roles of Teachers in CLT Classrooms by Metaphor Analysis

Qiang HUANG

Abstract


Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) approach has been a well-recognized language pedagogy for decades in the world. While most of the research of CLT approach focuses on the nature of teaching and learning, teacher roles in CLT approach are less discussed and examined in the literature. The present study thus intends to look into the roles of teachers in a communicative English course through questionnaires. The questionnaires were distributed to a group of 103 university students who had learnt a communicative English course at the university for at least one year. Students were required to use metaphors to indicate how they perceived their English teachers in the CLT course by completing the stem “While learning the communicative English course, the English teacher of the course is (like) ________ because ___________.” After data were collected and later coded, categorized and analyzed, results showed that the roles of teachers in the communicative English course mainly fell into four groups: the cognitive category of providing knowledge, the affective category of interesting students with authentic learning materials and interactive learning activities, the managerial category of assisting, guiding, monitoring the learning processes as well as designing learning activities for the class, and finally the fourth group of mainly negative perceptions. The researcher holds that the role of providing and transmitting knowledge is a constituent part of the teacher role of CLT approach. Furthermore, the affective category and the managerial category unveil more inherent traits of CLT teacher roles and characterize more intrinsic features of CLT approach.


Keywords


CLT; Teacher roles; Metaphor analysis; Cognitive category; Affective category; Managerial category

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alger, C. L. (2009). Secondary teachers’ conceptual metaphors of teaching and learning: Changes over the career span. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(5), 743-751.

Alvarez, I., Guasch, T., & Espasa, A. (2009). University teacher roles and competencies in online learning environment: A theoretical analysis of teaching and learning practices. European Journal of Teacher Education, 31(3), 321-336.

Anderson, J. (1993). Is a communicative approach practical for teaching English in China? Pros and cons. System, 21, 471-480.

Aragno, A. (2009). Meaning’s vessel: A metapsychological understanding of metaphor. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 29, 30-47.

Bao, R., & Du, X. (2015). Implementation of task-based language teaching in Chinese as a foreign language: Benefits and challenges. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 28(3), 291-310.

Baran, E., Correia, A. P., & Thompson, A. (2011). Transforming online teaching practice: Critical analysis of the literature on the roles and competencies of online teachers. Distance Education, 32(3), 421-439.

Bax, S. (2003). The end of CLT: A context approach to language teaching. ELT Journal, 57(3), 278-287. Retrieved from http://203.72.145.166/elt/files/57-3-7.pdf

Bulter, Y. G. (2011). The implementation of communicative and task-based language teaching in the Asia-Pacific region. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 31, 35-57.

Butler, Y. G. (2005). Comparative perspectives towards communicative activities among elementary school teachers in South Korea, Japan, and Taiwan. Language Teaching Research, 9, 423-446.

Cameron, L., & Maslen, R. (Eds.). (2010). Metaphor analysis: Research practice in applied linguistics, social sciences and the humanities. London: Equinox.

Carless, D. (2007). The suitability of task-based approaches for secondary schools: Perspectives from Hong Kong. System, 35, 595-608.

Chang, M. (2011). Factors affecting the implementation of communicative language teaching in Taiwanese college English classes. English Language Teaching, 4(2), 3-12.

Choi, S. (2000). Teachers’ beliefs about communicative language teaching and their classroom teaching practices. English Teaching, 55, 3-32.

Chowdhury, R., & Ha, P. L. (2000). Reflecting on western TESOL training and communicative language teaching: Bangladeshi teachers’ voices. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 28, 305-16.

Coppola, N. W., Hiltz, S. R., & Rotter, N. G. (2002). Becoming a virtual professor: Pedagogical roles and asynchronous learning networks. Journal of Management Information Systems, 18(4), 169-189.

Doughty, C., & Williams, J. (1998). Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Ellis, R. (2003). Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Gatbonton, E., & Segalowitz, N. (2005). Rethinking communicative language teaching: A focus on access to fluency. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 61, 325-53.

Guerrero, M. M., & Villamil, O. S. (2002). Metaphorical conceptualizations of ESL teaching and learning. Language Teaching Research, 6, 95.

Guest Editorial. (2016). Task-based language teaching and learning. The Language Learning Journal, 44(4), 377-380. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2016.1236523

Guner, N. (2009). Using metaphor analysis to explore high school students’ attitudes towards learning mathematics. Education, 133(1).

Hedge, T. (2001). Teaching and learning in the language classroom. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Huang, Q. (2013a). Exploring learners’ perceptions on communicative coursebook by metaphor analysis: The case of CECL. Higher Education of Social Science, 5(2), 52-60.

Huang, Q. (2013b). Exploring learners’ perceptions on CLT classroom learning by metaphor analysis. Journal of Guangxi Teachers Education University, 34(3), 124-129.

Jacobs, G. M., & Farrell, T. S. C. (2003). Understanding and implementing the CLT (Communicative Language Teaching) paradigm. RELC Journal, 34(5), 5-30.

Leung, C., & Lewkowicz, J. (2013). Language communication and communicative competence: A view from contemporary classrooms. Language and Education, 27(5), 398-414. doi: 10.1080/09500782.2012.707658

Li, D. (1998). It’s always more difficult than you plan and imagine: Teachers’ perceived difficulties in introducing the communicative approach in South Korea. TESOL Quarterly, 32(4), 677-703.

Li, X. J. (1984). In defense of the communicative approach. ELT Journal, 38, 2-13.

LI, X. J. (2001). Communicative English for Chinese learner. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press, English Foreword.

Liao, X. (2004). The need for communicative language teaching in China. ELT Journal, 58, 270-273.

Lin, W. C., Shein, P. P., & Yang, S. C. (2012). Exploring personal EFL teaching metaphors in pre-service teacher education. English Teaching: Practice and Critique, 11(1), 183-199.

Littlewood, W. (2007). Communicative and task-based language teaching in East Asian classrooms. Language Teaching, 40, 243-249.

Long, M. (1991). Focus on form: A design feature in language teaching methodology. In K. de Bot, R. B. Ginsberg & C. Kramsch (Eds.), Foreign language research in cross-cultural perspective (pp.39-52). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Mak, S. H. (2011). Tensions between conflicting beliefs of an EFL teacher in teaching practice. RELC Journal, 42, 53.

McGrath, I. (2006). Teachers’ and Learners’ images for coursebooks. ELT Journal, 60(2), 171-180.

Modell, A. (1997). Reflection on metaphor and affects. Annual Pschoanal, 25, 219-234.

Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. New York: Newbury House.

Pitcher, R., & Akerlind, G. S. (2011). Post-doctoral researchers’ conceptions of research: A metaphor analysis. Education 1(1), 160-171.

Richards, J. C., & Rodgers, T. S. (2001). Approaches and methods in language teaching (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ritzau, U. (2015). From form-focused to communicative: How university students change their beliefs about learning a foreign language. The Language Learning Journal. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2015.1046086

Saban, A. (2010). Prospective teachers’ metaphorical conceptualizations of learner. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26(2), 290-305.

Sato, K., & Kleinsasser, R. C. (1999). Communicative language teaching, practical understandings. The Modern Language Journal, 83(4), 494-517.

Shrum, J. L., & Glisan, E.W. (2000). Teacher’s handbook: Contextualized language instruction (2nd ed.). Boston: Heinle & Heinle.

Wan, W., Low, G. D., & Li, M. (2011). From students’ and teachers’ perspectives: Metaphor analysis of beliefs about EFL teachers’ roles. System, 39, 403-415.

Whong, M. (2013). A linguistic perspective on communicative language teaching, The Language Learning Journal, 41(1), 115-128. doi: 10.1080/09571736.2011.625097

Yu, L. (2001). Communicative language teaching in China: Progress and resistance. TESOL Quarterly, 35, 194-8.

Zapata, G., & Lacorte, M. (2007). Preservice and inservice instructors’ metaphorical constructions of second language teachers. Foreign Language Annals, 40(3), 521-534.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968/9674

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 Qiang Huang

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Share us to:   


Reminder

  • How to do online submission to another Journal?
  • If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:

1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author

  • Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.

2. Submission

  • Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.
  • We only use three mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases: caooc@hotmail.com; css@cscanada.net; css@cscanada.org

 Articles published in Canadian Social Science are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY).

 CANADIAN SOCIAL SCIENCE Editorial Office 

Address1020 Bouvier Street, Suite 400, Quebec City, Quebec, G2K 0K9, Canada.

Website: Http://www.cscanada.net Http://www.cscanada.org 
E-mailcss@cscanada.net, css@cscanada.org

Copyright © Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture