Junior Middle School Students’ Perceptions of Mathematics Classroom Learning Environments and Their Approaches to Learning Mathematics in China

Meng GUO


This study investigated Chinese junior middle school students’ perceptions of mathematics classroom learning environments and approaches to learning mathematics, among 1,640 students from 62 junior middle school classrooms in eight provinces in China. A Chinese-language version of the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES) and Approach to Learning Mathematics (ALM) were used in this study and were proved reliable and valid in the Chinese context. Factor analysis, CFA, descriptive statistics, Independent-Samples T Test, and Bivariate Correlation were used to analyze data from the questionnaire survey. The results of this study indicate that Chinese students failed to perceive their classroom learning environment as relatively positive, and tended to use deep learning approach and surface motive in mathematics learning. In addition, significant urban-rural differences were identified in both perceptions of classroom learning environment, and approaches to learning. The findings reveal that deep approaches were positively associated with Chinese students’ perceptions of mathematics classroom learning environments (Personal Relevance, Uncertainty, Shared Control, and Student Negotiation).


Mathematics classroom learning environments; Approaches to learning mathematics; Junior middle school; Chinese students

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968/%25x


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