Triangle of Hatred: Sexism, Racism and Alienation in Toni Morrison’s The Bluest Eye

Maher A. Mahdi

Abstract


The dilemma of the African American woman is based on racial and sexist oppression that constantly marginalizes her where she is confined in a pitiful state of nothingness. This double oppression is best featured in Toni Morrison’s novel The Bluest Eye. The present article purports to investigate how African American women have tragically fallen under the destructive spell of sexism and racism and, consequently, marginality and alienation. My argument runs within the main lines of both feminist and cultural theoretical approaches.
The Bluest Eye addresses three important issues: sexism, racism and alienation. This triangle relationship exposes the African American women’s intricate situation. Morrison criticizes both the oppressing forces in her (black) culture and white racism, whereas the whites take advantage of history to justify their own right to rule on the basis of the inferiority of a race and the superiority of another. This view of the justification of history conforms to Althusser’s concept of falsified ideology exploited to hegemonize others, where the black man justifies his sexism against his fellow women. Thus, the idea of the justification of history and the falsified ideology establish cultural and ideological oppression leading to the alienation of black women.


Keywords


Alienation; Hatred; Oppression; Racism; Sexism; Marginalization

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abdalla, F. (2014, Spring). Resistance of female stereotypes in the bluest eye: Destroying images of black womanhood and motherhood. Södertörns University, the institution for Culture & Learning, the Department of English. Retrieved from:http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:746603/FULLTEXT01.pdf

Althusser, L. (1986). Ideology and ideological state apparatus. Critical Theory Since 1965 (pp. 239-50). In H. Adams & L. Searle (Eds.). Tallahassee: Florida UP.

Benjamin, W. (1986). Theses on the philosophy of history. Critical Theory Since 1965 (pp. 9-85). In H. Adams & L. Searle (Eds.). Tallahassee: Florida UP.

Cole, J. L. & Charles, M. (Eds). (2008). Zora Neale Hurston: Collected Plays. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP.

Collins, P. H. (2008). Black feminist thought: Knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment. New York: Routledge.

Cormier-Hamilton, P. (1994). Black naturalism and Toni Morrison: The journey away from self-love in the bluest eye. Melus, 19(4), 109-127.

Das, K. (2015). Problematic of racism and sexism: A dialogue in Toni Morrison’s the bluest eye. International Journal of Research, 2(6), 556-560.

Ehrenreich, B. (1976). What is Socialist Feminism? WIN Magazine. Retrieved from: https://www.marxists.org/.../ehrenreich-barbara/socialist-feminism.htm

Fulton, L. (1997). An unblinking gaze: Readerly responsibility and racial reconstructions in Toni Morrison’s the bluest eye and beloved (MA thesis). Wilfrid Laurier University.

Ghosh, A. K. (2014). Multi componential African American fiction. West Bengal, India: Avenel Press.

Jordan-Zachery, J. (2009). Black women, cultural images, and social policy. New York: Routledge.

Kuenz, J. (1993). The bluest eye: Notes on history, community, and black female subjectivity. African American Review, 27(3), 421-431.

Hennessy, R., & Ingraham, C. (Eds.). (1997). Materialist feminism. New York: Routledge.

Hooks, B. (1981). Ain’t I a woman: Black women and feminism. Boston: South End.

Hurston, Z. N. (2008). Zora Neale Hurston: Collected plays. Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers.

Millet, K. (1977). Sexual politics. New York: Avon.

Moi, T. (Ed.). (1986). The Kristeva reader. New York: Columbia UP.

Morrison, T. (1982). The bluest eye: Seven contemporary short novels. In C. Clerk & L. Leiter (Eds). New York: Harper Collins.

Said, E. (1986). Secular criticism. Critical theory since 1965 (pp.604-621). In H. Adams & L. Searle (Eds.) Tallahassee: Florida, UP.

Smith, V. (1985). The quest for and discovery of identity in Toni Morrison’s song of Solomon. The Southern Review, 21(3), 721-732.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968/7481

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2015 Canadian Social Science




Share us to:   


Reminder

  • How to do online submission to another Journal?
  • If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:

1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author

  • Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.

2. Submission

  • Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.
  • We only use three mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases: caooc@hotmail.com; css@cscanada.net; css@cscanada.org

 Articles published in Canadian Social Science are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY).

 CANADIAN SOCIAL SCIENCE Editorial Office 

Address1020 Bouvier Street, Suite 400, Quebec City, Quebec, G2K 0K9, Canada.

Website: Http://www.cscanada.net Http://www.cscanada.org 
E-mailcss@cscanada.net, css@cscanada.org

Copyright © Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture