The Rise and Fall of Political Movements in the Late 19th Century and First Half of 20th Century Kurdistan (an Organisational Analysis)

Ahmad Mohammadpur, Norbert Otto Ross, Karim Mahmoodi

Abstract


Kurdological literature has been mainly limited to mere historical descriptive discussions characterized by descriptive story telling about personal/private aspects of Kurdish political chiefs. This study tries to provide a new sociological analysis based on synthetic organizational model to examine the process and structure of political movement-making and the causes of their failure in all around Kurdistan in the late 19th century and first half of 20th century. Four organizational theories are employed in this paper: contingency, institutional, population ecology and resource dependency theories. In order to analyse the rise and demise of political movement-making in the late 19th century and first half of 20th century Kurdistan Macro level factors including exogenous factors i.e. the super-powers and central governments, Meso level factors containing socio-economic factors such as tribal-feudalism, regionalism and religion, and Micro Level factors composed of illiteracy and cultural poverty were analysed through aforementioned organizational theories. Our fundamental finding is that the endogenous and exogenous factors have mutually caused the rise and demise of political movement-making. But exogenous factors were the final determinant in shaping, reshaping, directing and finally collapsing on Kurdish movements. Finally it should be asserted that neither exogenous factors nor Endogenous factors were able to meet Kurdish political requirements; exogenous forces were temporal determinants that played their role according to their own economic and political logic and endogenous forces such as tribal-feudalism, regionalism and religion wasted political potential in challenging with the central governments.


Keywords


Contemporary Kurdistan; Kurdish movements; Political movements; Organisational analysis Contemporary Kurdistan; Kurdish movements; Political movements; Organisational analysis

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abrahamian, E. (1998). Iran between two revolutions. In H. Shamsavari et al. (Trans.). Markaz Publication, Tehran, Iran.

Ahmadi, H. (1999). Ethnicity and Ethnicitism in Iran. Nei Publication, Tehran, Iran.

Barkey, H. J., & Fuller, G. E. (1998). Turkey’s Kurdish question. Carnegie Corporation, New York, United Status.

Baum, J. (1996). Organizational ecology. In S. R. Clegg et al. (Eds.). Handbook of Organization Studies. Sage Publication Ltd.

Borzoei, M. (1999). Political problems of Kurdistan:1879-1946. Fekre Now Publication, Tehran, Iran.

Bruinessen, M. M. V. (1998). Shifting national and ethnic identities: The Kurds in Turkey and the European Diaspora. J. Muslim Minority Affairs, 18(1), 39-52

Bruinessen, M. M. V. (1999). Agha, Sheikh, State. In E. Yunesi (Trans.). Paniz Publication, Tehran, Iran.

Digar, P., et al. (1998). Iran in 20thcentury. In H. Mahdavi (Trans.). Alborz Publication, Tehran, Iran.

Donaldson, L. (1996). The normal science of structural contingency theory. In S. R. Clegg et al. (Trans.), Handbook of organization studies. Sage Publication Ltd.

Eskander, S. (2000). Britain’s policy in Southern Kurdistan: The formation and the termination of the first Kurdish government 1918–1919. J. Middle Eastern Studies, Britain, 27(2), 139-163.

Foran, J. (1999). Social transformation in Iran. In A. Tadaiion (Trans.). Rasa Publication, Tehran, Iran.

Hatch, M. (1996). Organizational theory: Modern symbolic and postmodern perspectives. Oxford University Press.

Jalil, J. J. (2002). Revolts of the Kurds in 1880. Al-Zaman Publication, Baghdad, Iraq.

Katouzian, H. (2002). Democratic problems and public sphere in modern Iran. In A. R. Taiieb (Trans.), In State and Nation Conflict. Nei Publication, Tehran, Iran.

Katouzian, H. (2002). The Freedom and Disorganization in Constitutional Revolution. In A. R. Taiieb (Trans.), In state and nation conflict. Nei Publication, Tehran, Iran.

Kendal, N., et al. (1991). Kurds. In E. Yunesi (Trans.). Roozbehan Publication, Tehran, Iran.

Kochera, C. (1994). National movements of the Kurds. In E. Yunesi (Trans.). Negah Publication, Tehran, Iran.

Kurdistani, M. (1972). History of Kurd and Kurdistan and its districts. Ghariqi Publication, Sannandaj, Iran.

Kurdistani, V., & Akbar, A. (1985). Geography and history of Kurdistan. Arjang Publication, Tehran, Iran.

Mahdavi, H. (2001). External politics of Iran under Pahlavi dynasty 1300-1357. Peykan Publication, Tehran, Iran.

McDowall, D. (1991). The Kurds: A historical perspective. J. Asian Affairs, 22(3), 293-303.

McDowall, D. (2002). A modern history of the Kurds. In E. Yunesi (Trans., Persian). Paniz Publication, Tehran, Iran.

Mohammadpur, A. (2001). The process and consequences of modernization in Iranain Kurdistan 1921-2000: Case study of Sardasht township (M.A Thesis). Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran (2001)

Molla, O. I. S. (2001). The crisis-making of superpowers in Iraqi Kurdistan. Golban Publication, Tehran, Iran.

Muller, D. (2002). The Kurds of Soviet Azerbaijan 1920–91. J. Central Asian Survey, 19(1), 41-77.

Nikitin, V. (1999). Kurds and Kurdistan. In Q. Mohammad (Trans.). Derayat Publication, Tehran, Iran.

Olson, R. (2001). Kurdish question and Turkish-Iranianr relations. In E. Younesi (Trans.). Paniz Publication, Tehran, Iran.

Othman, A. (1997). Southern Kurdistan during the last phase of Ottoman control: 1839-1914. J. Muslim Minority Affairs, 17(2), 283-291.

Randall, J. (2002). After such knowledge, what forgiveness? In E. Yunesi (Trans.). Paniz Publication, Tehran, Iran.

Robbins, S P. (1987). Organizational theory structure, design, and application (2nd ed.). Prentice-Hall.

Safizadeh, S. (1994). History of Kurd and Kurdistan. Atieh Publication, Teharn, Iran.

Tolbert, P. S., & Zucker, L. G. (1996). The institutionalization of institutional theory. In S. R. Clegg et al. (Trans.), In handbook of organization studies. Sage Publication Ltd.

White, P. J. (1998). Economic marginalization of Turkey’s Kurds: The failed promise of modernization and reform. J. Muslim Minority Affairs, 18(1), 139-158.

Yasemi, R. (1995). Kurds and Their racial and historical belonging. Amir Kabir Publication, Tehran, Iran




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968/%25x

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c)




Share us to:   


Reminder

  • How to do online submission to another Journal?
  • If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:

1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author

  • Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.

2. Submission

  • Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.
  • We only use three mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases: caooc@hotmail.com; css@cscanada.net; css@cscanada.org

 Articles published in Canadian Social Science are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY).

 CANADIAN SOCIAL SCIENCE Editorial Office 

Address1020 Bouvier Street, Suite 400, Quebec City, Quebec, G2K 0K9, Canada.

Website: Http://www.cscanada.net Http://www.cscanada.org 
E-mailcss@cscanada.net, css@cscanada.org

Copyright © Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture