Job Satisfaction Comparisons Among Diverse Public Organizations in the UAE
People live in a multicultural society, where different sets of values and principles interact on a daily basis. In business, people from different parts of the world work together in an environment so rich in diverse cultural ideas and attitudes that it presents a huge chance for development through the huge flow of creative ideas, or the total opposite: an environment that easily can spark conflicts (Chapman, 2010). Globalization integrates different concepts about job satisfaction and adds a new dynamic to this rich world (Wormer, 2005) of opportunities. Regardless of origins, it is hard for an employee to perform a job day after day and still feel thrilled over time (Lee, 2005), or worse, for an employee to have a job that he/she never enjoyed in the first place. Research questions are: How can employees reach higher levels of job satisfaction? How does the organization get involved in enhancing its employees’ sense of job satisfaction? What are the known models of job satisfaction in the UAE? What are the main challenges of Job satisfaction in the UAE organizations? Also, three hypotheses were tested: Employees who receive larger salaries are more satisfied in their work. Creative employees are more motivated and fulfilled by their jobs. The more experience workers achieve, the more job satisfaction they receive. Accordingly, the literature review focuses on the meaning of job satisfaction, its challenges, and how to effectively increase employee satisfaction. The aim of this research is to explore the sense of job satisfaction and the struggles employees face in government organizations by using a case study of different organizations in the UAE. To test the research hypothesis quantitative and qualitative methods are used, 325 surveys were distributed among UAE employees and there are 12 employees interviewed regarding their work and in each organization to assemble facts about job satisfaction levels and the different factors that affect their work. One of the main research findings is job satisfaction is based on effective management, communication, facilities, and benefits, including salaries, technologies, and future job directions. Job satisfaction is a personal feeling that varies between employees in the UAE.
Adeyemo, D.A. (1997). Relative Influence of Gender and Working Experience on Job Satisfaction of Primary School Teachers.The Primary School Educators, 1 (1), 86-89.
Al-Haydar& Bin Taleb.(2005). Job Satisfaction among Workers in Health Sector in Riyadh City. Saudi Arabia , KSA: Institute of Public Administration.
AL-Hussami, M. (2008). A Study of Nurses’ Job Satisfaction: The Relationship to Organizational Commitment, Perceived Organizational Support, Transactional Leadership, Transformational Leadership, and Level of Education European, Journal of Scientific Research, 22 (2), 286-295
Akerlof, G.A. A.K. Rose, and J.L. Yellen. (1988).Job Switching and Job Satisfaction in the US Labor Market, Brooking Papers on Economic Activity, 2, 495-582.
Argyle, M. (1989).The Social Psychology of Work, 2nd edn.Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Arches, J. (1991).Social Structure, Burnout, and Job Satisfaction.Social Work, 36 (3), 202-206.
Attar G, Sweiss R. (2010). The Relationship between Information Technology Adoption and Job Satisfaction in Contracting Companies in Jordan, Journal of Information Technology in Construction,15, 44-63.
Berlin, H. (2004). Work Environment and Job Satisfaction a Psychometric Evaluation of the Working Environment Scale-10. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology,39(7), 576-580.
Brief, Arthur P. (1998).Attitudes in and Around Organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Brown, Mark G. (1996). Keeping Score: Using the Right Metrics to Drive World-Class Performance. New York: Quality Resources.
Borjas, G, (1979). Job Satisfaction, Wages and Unions.Journal of Human Resources,14, 21-40.
Charlie, S. (2010). Employee Satisfaction Surveys - Questionnaire on Employee Job Satisfaction, Retrieved on April 11, 2010, from http://www.buzzle.com/articles/employee-satisfaction-surveys-questionnaire-on-employee-job-satisfaction.html.
Chapman, A. (2010). Motivational theory.Employee Motivation Theory - Team Building Activities, Workshops, Inspirational Quotes, and the Power of Positive Experience. Retrieved on May 10, 2010, from http://www.businessballs.com/motivation.htm
Clark, A.E. (1996). Job Satisfaction in Britain, British.Journal of Industrial Relations, 34, (2),189-217.
Clark, A. E. and A. J. Oswald (1994).Unhappiness and Unemployment.Economic Journal, 104,648-659.
Cote S.,Morgan LM (2002).A Longitudinal Analysis of the Association between Emotion Regulation, Job Satisfaction, snd Intentions to Quit. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, 947–962.
Cranny, C. J., Smith, P. C., and Stone, E. F. (1992).Job Satisfaction: How People Feel About Their Jobs and How It Affects Their Performance. New York: Lexington Books.
Danish, R &Usman, A. (2010). Impact of Reward and Recognition on Job Satisfaction andMotivation: An Empirical Study from Pakistan. International Journal of Business and Management. (5) 2, pp. 195-167.
Denzin,& Y. S. Lincoln (Editors), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 105-117).Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Doyle, G. T., Forsyth, R. A. (1973). The Relationship between Teacher snd Student Anxiety Levels. Psychology in the Schools, 10, 231-233.
Elizabeth.S.(2007). Find Your Satisfaction in Your Current Job. Retrieved March 13, 2010, from http://stress.about.com/od/workplacestress/a/jobsatisfaction.htm
Engleza, R. (2007). Job Satisfaction, 24 Englezahtt, Retrieved March 13, 2010, from://www.e-referate.ro/referate/Job_satisfaction_-_essay2007-10-24.html
Eskildsen, J. (2000). The Managerial Drivers of Employee Satisfaction and Loyalty.Quality Management .581.
Everett, M. (1995).Making a Living While Making a Difference: A Guide to Creating Careers with a Conscience. New York: Bantam Books.
Farber, B. (2000). Rise Above It. Entrepreneur,28,126.
Fairbrother, K., & Warn, J. (2003). Workplace Dimensions, Stress and Job Satisfaction.Journal of Managerial Psychology, 8(1), 8-21.
Feder, B.J. (2000).New York Times, Feb 1, 2000, pg. C26. Available from: ProQuest Historical Newspapers. The New York Times (1851 - 2003). Retrieved On May 10, 2010, from http://www.answers.com/topic/job-enrichment.
Freeman, R. (1978). Job Satisfaction as an Economic Variable, American Economic Review, 68, 135-141.
Garcez , C. (2006). Job Satisfaction: The Challenges Transformed Organizations Face , Miscellaneous, Retrieved March 13, 2010, from http://aplawrence.com/Misc/job_satisfaction.html
Goodman, B. (1989). Urban Teachers Stress: a critical literature review. Journal of Experimental Education, 57.
Green W.H. (2002). Econometric Analysis, Fourth Edition, Prentice Hall, term inc., NY.
Guba, E. G., & Lincoln, Y. S. (1994). Competing paradigms in qualitative research. N. K. In
Hamermesh, D. S. (2001). The Changing Distribution of Job Satisfaction, Journal of HumanResources, 3, 1-30
Harris, L & Brown, G. (2010). Mixing interview and questionnaire methods: Practical problems in aligning data .Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 15(1)
Herzberg, F. (1959), The Motivation to Work, New York: John Wiley and Sons .pp. 59-83.
Herzberg, F.I. (1987). One more time: How do you motivate employees?, Harvard Business Review, 65(5), p109-120.
Huitt,B.(1992). Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Educational Psychology Interactive Retrieved on April 5, 2010 from http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/regsys/maslow.html
Hume, D. (2006). Job Dissatisfaction, Retrieved On May 19, 2010, from http://www.work-life-balance-tips.com/job-dissatisfaction.html.
Irving , P.G., Coleman, D.F., & Cooper, C.L. (1997). Further assessment of a three component model of occupational commitment: Generalizability and differences across occupations. Journal of Applied Psychology 82, 444-452.
Jorge, C &Heloísa, P. (2006). Psychosocial work factors, Quality of work indicators. European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. Retrieved August 3, 2010 from http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/ewco/reports/TN0608TR01/TN0608TR01_10.htm
Kaplowitz, M. D. (2000). Statistical analysis of sensitive topics in group and individual interviews.Quality and Quantity, 34, 419-431.
Karve,V. (2009). The Myths of Motivation and Job Satisfaction, Retrieved on June 15, 2010, from http://www.articlesbase.com/human-resources-articles/myths-of-motivation-job-satisfaction-1622899.html
Lawler, E. E., III (1973). Motivation in work organizations. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company: Monterrey, CA. p.65.
Lee, D. (2005). Motivating Employees The Fad-Free Way. Northeast HR Association, Retrieved On June 15, 2010, from http://www.humannatureatwork.com/articles/employee_morale/fad-free.htm
Levy-Garboua, L.And C. Montmarquette. (2002).Reported Job Satisfaction: What Does It Mean? mimeograph, Department of Economics, University of Montreal.
Locke, Edwin A. (1976). The Nature and Causes of Job Satisfaction.In M. D. Dunnette, ed., Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Chicago: Rand McNally.
Luthans, F. (1998).OrganisationalBehaviour. 8th ed. Boston: Irwin McGraw-Hill.
Maslow, A. (1943). A Theory of Human Motivation. Psychological Review,50, 370-396.
Monoclinic. (2010). Job satisfaction: Strategies to Make Work More Gratifying, Retrieved March 13, 2010, from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/job-satisfaction/WL00051.
Meyer, J.P., & Allen, N.J. (1991).A Three Component Conceptualization of Organizational Commitment. Human Resource Management Review 1, 61-89.
Morgan, D. L. (Ed.) (1993).Successful Focus Groups. Newbury Park, CA: Sage
Morse, J. M. (1991). Approaches to Qualitative-Quantitative Methodological Triangulation.Nursing Research, 40, 120-123.
Motowidlo, S. J. (1996). Orientation Toward the Job and Organization. In K. R. Murphy, ed., Individual Differences and Behavior in Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Mount, M., Ilies, R., & Johnson, E. (2006). Relationship of Personality Traits and Counterproductive Work Behaviors: the Mediating Effects of Job Satisfaction. Personnel Psychology, 59, 591-622.
Nor, M &Mansor, A. (2009).A Preliminary Study on Occupational Stress and Job Satisfaction among Male Navy Personnel at a Naval Base in Lumut, Malaysia.The Journal of International Social Research,2(9).229-306.
Okpara, J. (2004) The Impact of Salary on Job Satisfaction, The Journal of Business Developing Nation,8.
Olajide, A. (2000). Getting the Best out of the Employees in s Developing Economy. A Personnel Psychology Guest Lecture Series.Department of Guidance and Counseling, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
Orisatoki, R&Oguntibej, O. (2010). Job Satisfaction among Selected Workers in St Lucia,West Indies. Scientific Research and Essays,5(12),1436-1441.
Poulin, J. E. (1994). Job Task and Organizational Predictors of Social Worker Job Satisfaction Change: a Panel Study. Administration in Social Work, 18 (1), 21-38.
Rentner, T. L., &Bissland, J. H. (1990).Job Satisfaction and its Correlates among Public Relations Workers. Journalism Quarterly, 67 (4), 950-955.
Robert, W. (1993).Managing to Meet Employee Expectations: Quality Improvement Tools Narrow the Gap between Employee Expectations and Company Resources.Human Resource Plannin, 6 (4), 13
Rode, J. C. (2004). Job Satisfaction and Life Satisfaction Revisited: a Longitudinal Test of an Integrated Model. Human Relations,57(9), 1205-1230.
Sinclair, R.R., Tucker, J.S., Cullen, J.C., & Wright, C. (2005).Performance Differences among Four Organizational Commitment Profiles.Journal of Applied Psychology, 90 (6), 1280-1287.
Smith, P.C. (1992). In Pursuit of Happiness: Why Study General Job Satisfaction?, In C.J Cranny, P.C. Smith & E. F. Stone (eds.), Job Satisfaction (pp.5-19), New York: Lexington Books.
Solomon, R.L. (1980). The Opponent-Process Theory of Acquired Motivation: The Costs of Pleasure and the Benefits of Pain. American Psychologist, 35, 8, pp. 691–712.
Solomon, R.L. and Corbit, J.D. (1973). An Opponent-Process Theory of Motivation: II. Cigarette Addiction. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 81, 2, pp. 158–171.
Stanton, H. E. (1974). The Relationship between Teachers’ Anxiety Level and the Test Anxiety Level of Their Students. Psychology in the Schools, 11, 360-363.
Steven, L. (2008). Organization Psychology, Hoboken, Now York.
Tella , A. (2007). Work Motivation, Job Satisfaction, and Organisational Commitment of Library Personnel in Academic and Research Libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria, C.O. Ayeni.
"The Harvard Professional Group".(1998).In Three Hallmarks of a Career Position.Retrieved March 13, 2010, from http://www.harvardpro.com/careerjobs5a.htm.
Ting, Yuan. (1997). Determinants of Job Satisfaction of Federal Government Employees.Public Personnel Management Abstract, 26 (3), 313.
Wang, P, Lawler, J & Shi, K. (2010).Work—Family Conflict, Self-Efficacy, Job Satisfaction, and Gender: Evidences, Asia. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies,17 (3),298-308.
Wegge, J., Schmidt, K., Parkes, C., & van Dick, K. (2007). Taking a Sickie: Job Satisfaction and Job Involvement as Interactive Predictors of Absenteeism in a Public Organization. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 80, 77-89.
Weiss, M. (2002). Deconstructing Job Satisfaction: Separating Evaluations, Beliefs and Affective Experiences. Human Resource Management Review, 12, 173-194, 174.
Wormer, K. ( 2005). Concepts of Contemporary Social Work. Social Work & Society, 3 (1), 267-286.
Wright, M. D. (1985). Relationships among Esteem, Autonomy, Job Satisfaction and the Intention to Quit Teaching of Down-State Illinois Industrial Education Teachers, Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois, (1985), 46, 3273A.
Zeytinoglu, I.U., Denton, M., Davies, S., Baumann, A., Blythe, J., & Boos, L. (2007). Deteriorated External Work Environment, Heavy Workload and Nurses: Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention, Canadian Public Policy, 33, 31-47
- There are currently no refbacks.
We only use three mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases:
firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
Copyright © 2010 Canadian Research & Development Centre of Sciences and Cultures
Address: 758, 77e AV, Laval, Quebec, H7V 4A8, Canada
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138