Simple Described the Soldiers Widows System of the Ming Dynasty

Song-mei ZHANG


The soldiers widows of the Ming Dynasty haven’n been got special care and rarely inspected in history scholars. The paper will explore this issue on the basis of files information .It mainly including the inherited of descendants of the dead general and soldiers, the superior to young persons who were under the age of 14, and superior support to the mother, wife, daughter of the dead general and soldiers ,and the disabled, elderly persons themselves. On the basis of the establishment of former dynasty ,Ming has developed and promulgated the round military system, and enacted a national regulations, and have achieved good results. but also show obvious class and historical limitations, particularly that of late Ming Dynasty. Because the both internal and external,costly ,financial depletion, so the widows was at the stagnation and no application, intensified the Ming Dynasty's demise.
Keywords: Ming Dynasty, soldiers, inherited, superior given, superior support
Résumé Actuellement les recherches sur le système de soins particuliers accordés aux militaires invalides sont peu nombreux. A partir des documents et archives, cet essai étudie ce problème de la dynastie des Mings. Ce système comprend essentiellement l’héritage du poste des militaires décédés, les faveurs accordées à leur famille et leurs descendants ainsi que les soins donnés à des militaires invalides et de vieux militaires sans enfants. La dynastie des Mings a établi et perfectionné ce système, et a élaboré et promulgué des règlements concernés à l’échelle nationale. L’application de ce système a donné des fruits, mais il y a eu aussi des limites historique évidentes, en particulier depuis la dernière étape de la dynastie où les troubles intérieurs et l’invasion étrangère s’entremêlent, les dépenses étaient considérables, les finances étaient en difficulté, les mesures sur les soins particuliers paralysées sont devenues lettre morte. Tout cela a accéléré l’extinction de la dynastie des Mings.
Mots-clés : dynastie des Mings, militaires, héritage, faveurs, soins particuliers
摘 要 目前史學界關於明代軍人優撫的考察並不多見。本文依據檔案資料對明代軍人優撫問題進行探討,主要包括對亡故將士應襲舍人的武職襲替,對年幼未襲者的優給,和對故絕武職官員的遺母、妻、女及殘疾、年老無嗣者的優養。明朝在前代的基礎上,建立健全了軍人優撫體系 ,制定並頒佈了全國性的優撫條例,取得了良好的效果,但也表現出明顯的歷史局限性,特別是明中後期南倭北虜,內憂外患,餉費浩繁,財政枯竭,優撫措施陷於停滯,成一紙之空文,加劇了明朝的滅亡。

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