Development of an Instrument to Explore Teacher Roles Based on Perceptions of English Learners in Online Learning Context



In order to examine teacher roles in ELT contexts more specifically, this study aims to develop an instrument (A Scale of Teacher Role Inventory, in short STRI) that measures teacher roles based on the perceptions of English learners in online learning context. The instrument was constructed under the conceptual framework of role theory by Coppola (2002) and on the basis of the scenario of open-ended question responded by 296 university students as well as an interview of 15 university students in previous investigations. A tentative questionnaire of 46 items was designed and later administered to 251 university students for the pilot study. In order to validate the instrument, both item analysis and exploratory factor analysis were conducted to delete 19 less valid items and develop the final version of a scale with 27 items. Statistical results showed that KMO was .938 (p = .000 < .005) and 27 items fell into three main factors: cognitive role, affective role and managerial role. The Cronbach’s Alpha value of the final 27-item scale is .924, which indicates that it is a fairly reliable measurement. To further validate this final version of 27-item instrument, the questionnaire was administered to 153 university students. The results showed that the scale is reliable and valid with Cronbach’s Alpha value of .955. The research findings suggested that this instrument of STRI could be used to scrutinize the specific tasks of teachers and reveal possible role changes not only in online learning modes but also across different instructional contexts.


Teacher roles; Online learning context; Cognitive roles; Affective roles; Managerial roles

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