Study on Translation, Dissemination and Influence of Three Character Classic by Chinese Repository

Jie LI


There have been many studies on the English translation of Three Character Classic, but not enough attention has been paid to the translation of Elijah Coleman Bridgman published in 1835 by Chinese Repository. Most of the present studies briefly mentioned its translation, but few systematic and in-depth investigations have been made into it. Therefore, the historical significance of its translation has been undervalued. This study aims to objectively describe and analyze the historical motivation, process, communication, and impact of the translation of the Three Character Classic by Chinese Repository. It is found that Bridgman took advantage of a large number of paratexts to make sweeping accusations against Confucian educational thought and philosophy, forcing the essence of Chinese primary education to be exposed to the western world, aiming to reveal that China desperately needed the salvation of the Christian Gospel to enlighten its children as well as to lay the foundation for its missionary work. However, it is undeniable that its translation action objectively spread the culture of Chinese primary education and the basic concepts of Confucianism to the West, and built a bridge for westerners to understand China’s traditional culture.



Chinese Repository; Bridgman; Translation of the Three Character Classic; Dissemination; Influence

Full Text:



Deng, L. J. (2015). A historical account of Chinese-English translation by early protestant missionaries to China 1807-1850. Beijing: Tsinghua University Press.

Miyazawa, S., & Gu, J. (2012). Unpublished letters from and to Samuel Wells Williams in Yale University Library, U.S.A. Guilin: Guangxi Normal University Press.

Li, H. J., & Jiang, F. M., (2016). On introduction and translation of the Chinese classics in Chinese Repository. Shandong Foreign Language Teaching, (6), 101-107.

Kong H.Y. (1999). Translation, Literature, Culture. Beijing: Peking University Press.

Sun, N. R. (2020). On translation, dissemination and influence of classics of Confucianism in the early sinology journals: a case study of Chinese Repository. Journal of Ludong University (Philosophy and Social Science Edition), (5), 26-30.

Wei, J. H. (2001). On the cultural misinterpretation in translation. Journal of Tongji University (Social Science Edition), (6), 96-102.

Yao, D. D. (2017). On the historical development of English translation of Chinese traditional literary criticism. Jinan Journal (Philosophy and Social Science Edition), (1), 12-21.

Zhou, J. & Yao, Y. 2020. Research on the translation and introduction activities of foreign sinologists in China in the mid-nineteenth century: focusing on the Chinese Repository. Journal of the National Museum of China, (5), 120-133.

Bassnett, S. (1998). Still trapped in the labyrinth: further reflections on translation and theatre. In Bassnett, S. & Lefevere, A. (eds). Constructing Cultures: Essays on Literary Translation. UK. Multilingual Matters, 90-108.

Bridgman, E. C. (1998). Glimpses of canton: the diary of Elijah C. Bridgman, 1834-1838. Connecticut: Yale Divinity School Library.

Bridgman, E. C. (1832). Introduction. Chinese Repository, (1), 4.

Bridgman, E. G. (1864). The pioneer of American missions in China: the life and labors of Elijah Coleman Bridgman. New York: A.D.F. Randolph.

Bridgman, E. C. (1835). Santsze King, or trimetrical classic. Chinese Repository, (3), 105-118.

Miller, S. C. (1974). The unwelcome immigrant: the American image of the Chinese, 1785-1882. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Williams, S. W. (1913). The middle kingdom: a survey of the geography, government, literature, social life, arts, and history of the Chinese empire and its inhabitants. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.

Toury, G. (2012). Descriptive translation studies and beyond (Revised Edition). Amsterdam /Philadelphia, John Benjamins Publishing.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Share us to:   


  • How to do online submission to another Journal?
  • If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:

1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author

  • Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.

2. Submission

Online Submission:

  • Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.
  • We only use four mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases:;;;

 Articles published in Cross-Cultural Communication are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY).


Address: 1055 Rue Lucien-L'Allier, Unit #772, Montreal, QC H3G 3C4, Canada.
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138 
Website: Http://; Http://;

Copyright © Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture