A Cholesterol and Actinide Dependent Shadow Biosphere of Archaea and Viroids Indicating Cholesterol Based Abiogenesis- Evolution of the Biological Universe

Ravikumar Kurup A., Parameswara Achutha Kurup

Abstract


AimEndomyocardial fibrosis along with the root wilt disease of coconut is endemic to Kerala with its radioactive actinide beach sands. Actinides like rutile, endogenous digoxin as well as organisms like phytoplasmas and viroids have been implicated in the etiology of these diseases. Endogenous digoxin has been related to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, malignancy, metabolic syndrome x, autoimmune disease and neuronal degeneration. The possibility of endogenous digoxin synthesis by actinide based primitive organism like archaea with a mevalonate pathway and cholesterol catabolism was considered. MethodsPlasma from fasting heparinised blood was used and the experimental protocol was as follows (I) Plasma+phosphate buffered saline, (II) same as I+cholesterol substrate, (III) same as II+rutile 0.1 mg/ml, (IV) same as II+ciprofloxacine and doxycycline each in a concentration of 1 mg/ml. The following estimations were carried out:- Cytochrome F420, free RNA, free DNA, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, hydrogen peroxide, dopamine, serotonin, pyruvate, ammonia, glutamate, cytochrome C, hexokinase, ATP synthase, HMG CoA reductase, digoxin and bile acids.ResultsPlasma of control subjects showed increased levels of the above mentioned parameters with after incubation for 1 hour and addition of cholesterol substrate resulted in still further significant increase in these parameters. The plasma of patients showed similar results but the extent of increase was more. The addition of antibiotics to the control plasma caused a decrease in all the parameters while addition of rutile increased their levels. The addition of antibiotics and rutile to the patient’s plasma produced the same changes but the extent of change was more in patient’s sera as compared to controls.ConclusionAn actinide dependent shadow biosphere of archaea and viroids in the above mentioned disease states is described. Metal actinides in beach sands have been postulated to play a role in abiogenesis. A hypothesis of cholesterol as the primal prebiotic molecule synthesised on actinide surfaces with all other biomolecules arising from it and a self replicating cholesterol lipid organism as the initial life form is presented. A cholesterol based theory of abiogenesis and its role in the evolution of universe is elucidated.

Key words: Biological Universe; Cholesterol; Actinide


Keywords


Biological Universe; Cholesterol; Actinide



DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968%2Fj.ans.1715787020110402.132

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