Transformational Leadership Style and Organizational Learning: The Mediate Effect of Organizational Culture

Mahmoud Elshanti

Abstract


Purpose: The present study aims to investigate the influence of transformational leadership style (TFL) on organizational learning (OL). More specifically, it aims to examine the mediating effect of organizational culture (OC) on this relationship, in the context of ministries operating in Palestine.
Design/methodology/approach: The present study utilized the hypothesis–deductive testing approach. Two hypotheses were proposed for testing. The data were collected from 475 managers at 23 ministries in Gaza by using self adminstarted questionniers and the data aggregated by individual level.
Findings: The results demonstrated that organizational culture was a significant predictor of organizational learning and functioned as a fully mediator between the transformational leadership style and organizational learning.
Research limitations/implications: A key limitation of this study is its cross-sectional nature. It is possible that at least certain aspects of transformational leadership and its impact on organizational culture and organizational learning emerge with some kind of time lag. This study also used the perceptions of leader-self report as its data source, which may cause potential common source bias.
Practical implications: The findings of this research will assist policy makers of Palestinian ministries to optimize the allocations of resources in its hiring, rewarded, training and other functions of human resource management to have the right leaders for building a learning organization.
Originality/value: The results of this study provide evidence in support the mediating effect of organizational culture on the relationship between transformational leadership style and organizational learning, which represents a response to many calls to conduct further research in this area, and will be of interest to those in the field.


Keywords


Organizational learning; Transformational leadership; Organizational culture; Palestine

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ajmal, M. M., & Koskinen, K. U. (2008). Knowledge transfer in project-based organizations: An organizational culture perspective. Project Management Journal, 39(1), 7-15.

Alas, R., & Vadi, M. (2006). The impact of organizational culture on organizational learning and attitudes concerning change from an institutional perspective. Strategic Change Management, 1(2), 155-170.

Amitay, M., Popper, M., & Lipshitz, R. (2005). Leadership style and organizational learning in community clinics. The Learning Organization, 12(1), 57-70.

Antonakis, J., Avolio, B. J., & Sivasubramanian, N. (2003). Context and leadership: An examination of the nine-factor full-range leadership theory using Multifactor leadership Questionnaire. The Leadership Quarterly, 14(3), 261-298.

Argyris, C., & Schön, D. A. (1996). Organizational learning II: Theory, method, and practice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.

Argyris, C. (1977). Double-loop learning in organizations. Harvard Business Review, 55(5), 115-125.

Argyris, C. (1999). On organizational learning (2nd ed.). Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Avolio, B., & Bass, B. (2004). Multifactor leadership questionnaire (3rd ed). Retrieved 2012, November 8 from Mental Measurements Yearbook Database.

Aydogdu, S., & Asikgil, B. (2011). The effect of transformational leadership behavior on organizational culture: An application in pharmaceutical industry. International Review of Management and Marketing, 1(4), 65-73.

Barbuto, J. E. (2005). Motivation and transactional, charismatic, and transformational leadership: A test of antecedents. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 11(4), 26-40.

Barrados, M., & Mayne, J. (2003). Can public sector organizations learn? OECD Journal on Budgeting, 3(3), 87-103.

Bass, B. M. (1985), Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.

Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1993). Transformational leadership and organizational culture. Public Administration Quarterly, 17(1), 112-121.

Bates, R., & Khasawneh, S. (2005). Organizational learning culture, learning transfer climate and perceived innovation in Jordanian organizations. International competitive advantage (pp.17-37). London: Sage.

Behery, M., & Paton, R. (2008). Performance appraisal-cultural fit and organizational outcomes within the UAE. Journal of American Academy of Business, 13, 166-176.

Berthon, P., Pitt, L. F., & Ewing, M. T. (2001). Corollaries of the collective: The influence of organizational culture and memory development on perceived decision-making context. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 29(2), 135-150.

Bhat, A., Rangnekar, S., & Barua, M. (2013). Impact of transformational leadership style on organizational Learning. Journal of Education and Review, 1(14), 24-31.

Bontis, H., Crossan, M., & Hulland, J. (2002). Managing an organizational learning system by aligning stocks and flows. Journal of Management Studies, 39(4), 437-469.

Burke, W., & Litwin, G. (1992). A causal model of organizational performance and change. Journal of Management, 18(3), 523-545.

Burns, J.M. (1978). Leadership. New York, NY: Harper & Row.

Cameron, K. S., & Ettington, D. R. (1988). The conceptual foundations of organizational culture. In J. C. Smart (Ed.), Higher education: Handbook of theory and research (pp. 356-396). New York: Agathon.

Cameron, K. S., & Quinn, R. E. (2006). Diagnosing and changing organizational culture: Based on the Competing Values Framework (2nd ed.). Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.

Chang, S. C, & Lee, M. S. (2007). The effects of organizational culture and knowledge management mechanisms on organizational innovation: An empirical study in Taiwan. The Business Review, 7(1), 295-301.

Chin-Loy, C., & Mujtaba, B. G. (2007). The influence of organizational culture on the success of knowledge management practices with North American companies. International Business and Economics Research Journal, 6(3), 15-28.

Cohen, J. (1992). A power prime. Psychological Bulletin, 112(1), 115-159.

Crossan, M., Lane, H., & White, R. E. (1999). An organizational learning framework from intuition to institution. Academy of Management Review, 24(3), 337-537.

Crossan, M., Lane, H., White, R., & Djurfeldt, L. (1995). Organizational Learning – Dimensions for a Theory. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 3(4), 337-360.

Cunningham, V., & Tuggle, F. (2005). The role of organizational trust in knowledge management: Tools & technology use & success. International Journal of Knowledge Management, 1(1), 67-85.

Daft, R. L., & Huber, G. P. (1987). How organizations learn: A communication framework. Research in the Sociology of Organizations, 5(1), 1-36.

DeTienne, K. B., Dyer, G., Hoopes, C., & Harris, S. (2004). Toward a model of effective knowledge management and directions for future research: culture, leadership, and CKOs. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 10(4), 26-43.

Dirani, M. (2009). Measuring the learning organization culture, organizational commitment and job satisfaction in the Lebanese banking sector. Human Resource Development International, 12(2), 189-208.

Dodgson, M. (1993). Organizational learning: A review of some literatures. Organization Studies, 14(3), 375-394.

Dutta, D., & Crossan, M. (2005). The nature of entrepreneurial opportunities: Understanding the process using the 4I organizational learning framework. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 29(4), 425-494.

Edmondson, A., & Moingeon, B. (1996). When to learn how and when to learn why: Appropriate organizational learning processes as a source of competitive advantage. In B. Moingeon & A. Edmondson (Eds.), Organizational learning and competitive advantage (pp.17-37). London: Sage.

Fairholm, W. (1994). Leadership and the culture of trust. Westport, Conn: Prager.

Fard, H., Rostamy, A., & Taghiloo, H. (2009). How types organizational cultures contributes in shaping learning organization. Journal of Singapore Management Review, 31(1), 49-53.

Fey, C. F., & Denison, D. R. (2003). Organizational culture and effectiveness: Can American theory be applied in Russia? Organization Science, 14(6), 686-706.

Gahtani, S., Hubona, S., & Wang, J. (2007). Information technology (IT) in Saudi Arabia: Culture and the acceptance and use of IT. Information & Management, 44(8), 681-691.

Garvin, D. A., Edmondson, A. C., & Gino, F. (2008). Is yours a learning organization? Harvard Business Review, 261-298.

Grieves, J. (2000). Introduction: The origin of organizational development. Journal of Organizational Development, 19(5), 345-447.

Graham, C., & Nafukho, M. (2006). Employees’ perception toward the dimension of culture in enhancing organizational learning. The Learning Organization, 14(3), 281-292.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Hatch, M. J. (2000). The cultural dynamic of organizational and changing. In C. P. M. W. N. M. Ashkenazy, & M. F. Peterson (Eds.), Handbook of organizational culture and climate (pp.245-260).Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publications.

Hawkins, A. A. (2008). Leaders as facilitators of organizational learning. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 29(3), 212-234.

Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values (2nd ed.). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations (2nd ed.). London: Sage Publications.

Huber G. (1991). Organizational learning: The contributing processes and the literature. Organizational Science, 2(1), 88-115.

Hutahayan, B., Astuti, E., Raharjo, K., & Hamid, D. (2013). The mediating effect of organizational culture and organizational commitment in relationship between transformational leadership to organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 5(5), 618-626.

Ikehara, H. (1999). Implications of gestalt theory and practice for the learning organization. The Learning Organization, 6(2), 63-69.

Jang, H. (2010). Examining organizational learning in public sector organizations: From the perspective of Florida municipal governments (Doctoral dissertation). University of Reubin O’D School of Publid Administration and Policy.

Jogulu, U. (2011). Leadership that promotes organizational learning: Both sides of the coin. Development and Learning in Organizations, 25(4), 11-14.

Jorgensen, B. (2004). Individual and organizational learning: A model for reform for public organizations. Foresight, 6(2), 91-103.

Joseph, K., & Dai, C. H. (2009). The influence of organizational culture on organizational learning, worker involvement and worker productivity. International Journal of Business and Management, 4(9), 243-250.

Jung, D. I., Chow, C., & Wu, A. (2003). The role of transformational leadership in enhancing organizational innovation: hypotheses and some preliminary findings. The Leadership Quarterly, 14(5), 525-544.

Kassim, K. H., & Abdullah, S. (2008). Perceptions of organizational learning practices among Yemeni university librarians. Malaysian Journal of Library & Information Science, 13(1), 77-90.

Kenny, D. A., Kashy, D. A., & Bolger, N. (1998). Data analysis in social psychology. In D. Gilbert, S. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds), The handbook of social psychology (4th ed., pp.233-65). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.

Kurland, H., Peretz, H., & Hertz-Lazarowitz, H. (2010). Leadership style and organizational learning: The mediate effect of school vision. Journal of Educational Administration, 48(1), 7-30.

Lakomski, G. (2001). Organizational change, leadership and learning: Culture as cognitive process. The International Journal of Educational Management, 15(2), 68-77.

Lam, Y. L. J. (2002). Defining the effects of transformational leadership on organizational learning: A cross-cultural comparison. School Leadership & Management, 22, 439-52.

Lim, B. (1995). Examining the organizational culture and organizational performance link. Organization Development Journal, 16(5), 16-21.

Lok, P., & Crawford, J. (2004). The effect of organizational culture and leadership style on job satisfaction and organizational commitment: Across-national comparison. Journal of Management Development, 23(4), 321-338.

Mahler, J. (1997). Influence of organizational culture in learning in public agencies. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 7(4), 519-540.

March, J. G. (1991). Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning. Organization Science, 2(2), 71-87.

Marquardt, M. J. (1996). Building the learning organization: A systems approach to quantum improvement and global success. New York: McGraw-Hill.Source.

Marsick, V. J., & Watkins, K. E. (1993). Sculpting the learning organization Lessons in the art and science of systematic change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Marsick, V. J., & Watkins, K. E. (2003). Demonstrating the value of an organization’s learning culture: The dimensions of the learning organization questionnaire. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 5(2), 132-151.

Miller, D. (1996). A preliminary typology of organizational learning: Synthesizing the Literature. Journal of Management, 22(3), 485-505.

Moynihan, P. (2005). Goal-Based Learning and the Future of Performance Management. Public administration Review, 65(2), 203-216.

Nafei, W., Kaifi, B., & Khanfar, N. (2012). Leadership styles and organizational learning: An empirical study on saudi banks in Al-Taif Governorate Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Journal of Management and Strategy, 3(1), 1-17.

Nguyen, H., & Mohamed, S. (2011). Leadership behaviors, organizational culture and knowledge management practices: An empirical investigation. Journal of Management Development, 30(2), 206-221.

Northouse, P. G. (2013). Leadership theory and practice (6th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage publication.

Ogbonna, E., & Harris, L. C. (2000). Leadership style, organizational culture and performance: Empirical evidence from UK companies. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 11(4), 766-788.

Prange, C. (1999). Organizational learning—desperately seeking theory? In M. Easterby-Smith, J. Burgoyne, & Araujo (Eds.), Organizational learning and the learning organization (pp.23-43). London: Sage.

Rekeb, H. (2008). The Reality of change management in the Palestinian national authority ministries in the Gaza Strip, and their impact on the level of performance (Unpublished master thesis). Islamic University of Gaza, Palestine.

Rijal, S. (2010). Leadership style and organizational culture in learning organization: A Comparative study. Journal of Management and Information System, 14(5), 119-128.

Sahaya, N. (2012). A learning organization as a mediator of leadership style and firms’ financial performance. International Journal of Business & Manegement, 7(41), 96-113.

Sardieh, E. (2012). Transformational leadership and organizational culture in small-scale industries in the governorate of Mafraq. European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences, 45, 122-139.

Sarros, J. C., Gray, J., & Densten, I. L. (2002). Leadership and its impact on organizational culture. International Journal of Business Studies, 10(2), 1-26.

Schein, E. M. (2004). Organizational culture and leadership. Jossy-Bass.

Sekaran, U. (2003). Research methods for business: A skill-building approach (4th ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Senge, P. (2004). The Fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. New York: Doubleday.

Sinkula, J. M. (1994). Market information processing and organizational learning. Journal of Marketing, 55(1), 35-45.

Telbani, N., & Salem, M. (2011). The Dimensions of the Learning Organization in Al-Shifa Hospital in Gaza from Its Employees’ Point of View. Jordan Journal of Business Administration, 7(2), 295-321.

Templeton, G. F., Bruce, R. L., & Snyder, C. A. (2002). Development of a measure for the organizational learning construct. Journal of Management Information System, 19(2), 175-218.

Valle, M. (1999). Crisis, culture and charisma: The new leader’s work in public organizations. Public Personnel Management, 28(2), 245-57.

Vera, D., & Crossan, M. (2004). Strategic leadership and organizational learning. Academy of Management Review, 29(2), 222-240.

Visser, M. (2007). Deutero-learning in organizations: A review and a reformulation. Academy of Management Review, 32(2), 659-667.

Watkins, K. E., & Dirani, K. M. (2013). A meta-analysis of the dimensions of a learning organization questionnaire: Looking across cultures, ranks, and industries. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 15(2), 148-162.

Xenikou, A., & Simosi, M. (2006). Organizational culture and transformational leadership as predictors of business unit performance. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(6), 566-579.

Yeo, R. (2007). Organizational learning in representative Singapore public organizations. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 20(5), 345-365.

Yousef, M. (2005). The public service as a learning organization: The Malaysian experience. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 71(3), 463-74.

Yukl, G. (2006). Leadership in organization. Kuala lumpur, Malaysia: Pearson International Edition.

Zagoršek, H., Dimovski, V., & Škerlavaj, M. (2009). Transactional and transformational leadership impacts on organizational learning. Journal for East European Management Studies, 14(2), 144-165.

Zanoon, M. (2006). The reality of selection and employment policies in managerial jobs in the Palestinian national authority ministries in the Gaza Strip, and their impact on the level of performance (Unpublished master thesis). Islamic University of Gaza, Palestine.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968/10059

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 mahmoud ABED EL SHANTY

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Share us to:   


Reminder

  • How to do online submission to another Journal?
  • If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:

1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author

  • Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.

2. Submission

  • Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.


We only use three mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases: caooc@hotmail.com; ibm@cscanada.net; ibm@cscanada.org

 Articles published in International Business and Management are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY).

 INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT Editorial office

Address: 9375 Rue de Roissy Brossard, Québec, J4X 3A1, Canada 
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138 
Website: Http://www.cscanada.net Http://www.cscanada.org 
E-mailcaooc@hotmail.com

Copyright © 2010 Canadian Research & Development Centre of Sciences and Cultures