Lokoja Urban Water Supply as a Basic Service Programme: A Critical Appraisal of Achievements and Failures, 1991-2011

Ali S. Yusufu Bagaji, Natala Yakubu, Abu Maji


On the 27th August, 1991, through a Presidential announcement, Lokoja became the capital of Kogi state, Nigeria. Prior to this time, it was a Local Government Headquarters. Due to the sudden transformation to a state capital, and coupled with serious neglect of water supply infrastructures, Lokoja immediately started to experience unprecedented water supply problems. This article examines the conditions of water supply infrastructures, population growth vis-à-vis water supply and demand in Lokoja before 1991, and up to 2011. In addition, the article appraised what successive governments in Kogi state had done to ameliorate the water crises and noted with concern that, its achievement had been negligible and negligent. The article concludes that, for sustainability of the giant strides made in the water sector between 2008 and 2011, both the government and the consumers should change their attitude in favour of “waterwise” and “green economy” approaches.
Key words: Urban population growth; Water supply and demand; Water supply infrastructures; Water supply targets; Water crisis; Waterwise; Green economy

Résumé: Le 27 août 1991, par une annonce présidentielle, Lokoja devint la capitale de l'Etat de Kogi, au Nigéria. Avant cette époque, il était un quartier général de l'administration 1 locale. En raison de la transformation soudaine d'une capitale de l'Etat, et couplé à une négligence grave des infrastructures d'approvisionnement en eau, a immédiatement commencé à Lokoja expérience sans précédent des problèmes d'approvisionnement en eau. Cet article examine les conditions des infrastructures d'approvisionnement en eau, la croissance de la population l'approvisionnement en eau vis-à-vis et la demande dans Lokoja avant 1991, et jusqu'en 2011. En outre, l'article évalué ce que les gouvernements successifs de l'Etat de Kogi avait fait pour améliorer les crises de l'eau et a noté avec préoccupation que, sa réalisation avait été négligeable et la négligence. L'article conclut que, pour la durabilité du fait des pas de géant dans le secteur de leau entre 2008 et 2011, le gouvernement et les consommateurs doivent changer leur attitude en faveur du “Econeau” et les approches de “l’économie verte”.
Mots clés: La croissance démographique urbaine; L'approvisionnement en eau et de la demande; Les infrastructures d'approvisionnement en eau; Les cibles d'approvisionnement en eau; La crise de l'eau; Le Waterwise; L’économie verte


Urban population growth; Water supply and demand; Water supply infrastructures; Water supply targets; Water crisis; Waterwise; Green economy;Canadian;Social Science;La croissance démographique urbaine; L'approvisionnement en eau et de la demande


Abdullahi, M.A. (1981). Water, Water Every Where, But Not a Drop to Drink. Proceedings of the Second National Conference on Water Pollution Control, 8.

Federal Republic of Nigeria. (1991). Presidential Special Speech by General Ibrahim Babangida. Abuja: Federal Ministry of Information.

Gbadamosi, T.G.O., & Ajayi, A.J.F. (1980). ‘Islam and Christianity in Nigeria’. In Obaro Ikime (ed.), Groundwork of Nigerian History. Lagos: Heinemann Press.

Kogi State Government of Nigeria. (1992). Lokoja Master Plan. Lokoja: Kogi State Ministry of Works, (Department of Lands and Survey).

Kogi State Government of Nigeria. (1995). Report of the Technical Committee on the Greater Lokoja Water Works. Lokoja: Kogi State Ministry of Water Resources.

Kogi State Government of Nigeria. (1996). Technical Report on Water Supply and Demand for Lokoja, 1991-1996. Lokoja: Kogi Water Board.

Kwara State Government of Nigeria. (1991). Lokoja Master Plan. Ilorin: Ministry of Works, Lands and Housing, (Planning Division).

Moforunsho, S. J. (1992). Water: More Sighs than Smiles. Lokoja: Koje Press Ltd..

Oladunni, E. B. I. (1996). Water Supply Situation in Nigeria. Lagos: Bullion Press.

Omotola, S.J. (2008). Democratisation, Identity Transformation, and the Rising Ethnic Conflict in Nigeria. Philippine Journal of Third World Studies, 23(1), 71-90.

The Nigerian Observer. (2009). Ibrahim Idris Signs N10b Lokoja Water Project. Retrieved from http://nigerianobservernews. com/21032009/news/Other%20News/othernews%206.html.

The Nigerian Observer. (2009). Bello Says the N10b Lokoja Water Project Has Come to Stay. Retrieved from http:// nigerianobservernews.com/21032009/news/Other%20 News/othernews%206.html.

The Nigerian Observer. (2011). N10b Lokoja Water Project for Commissioning. Retrieved from http:// nigerianobservernews.com/23052011/news/Other%20 News/othernews%206.html.

Water Technology.net. (2011). Lokoja Water Project to End Water Crisis. Retrieved from http://www.water-technology. net/news/news120012.html.

World Health Organisation. (1980). Drinking Water and Sanitation, 1981-1990: A Way to Health. Geneva: WHO.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968/j.css.1923669720110704.048


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c)


  • How to do online submission to another Journal?
  • If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:

1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author

  • Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.

2. Submission

Online Submissionhttp://cscanada.org/index.php/css/submission/wizard

  • Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.
  • We only use four mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases: caooc@hotmail.com; office@cscanada.net; ccc@cscanada.net; ccc@cscanada.org

 Articles published in Canadian Social Science are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY).


Canadian Social Science Editorial Office

Address: 1020 Bouvier Street, Suite 400, Quebec City, Quebec, G2K 0K9, Canada.
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138 
Website: Http://www.cscanada.net; Http://www.cscanada.org 
E-mail:caooc@hotmail.com; office@cscanada.net

Copyright © Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture