Functions of Fate Schema: The Case of Persian and English

Salva Shirinbakhsh, Abbass Eslamirasekh

Abstract


With an aim to contribute to the present knowledge of intercultural communications, this study explores the cultural schemas of ghesmat and fate in Persian and English societies. Particularly, it tries to demonstrate how comparable these two cultural schemas are across the speakers of the two speech communities. Data were collected by triangulation, through ethnographic observations, movies, and websites. The collected data were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. To perform a quantitative analysis the frequency of the schema of fate and ghesmat in different situations in English and Persian was calculated. Furthermore, to find out the underlying themes of the schemas activation a qualitative content analysis and Wierzbicka’s semantic analysis were employed. The findings further improve the cultural knowledge involved in intercultural communications and discuss the sociocultural roles of ghesmat and fate cultural schemas in the speech communities.
Key words: Schema; Cultural Schema; Ghesmat; Fate; Cultural Keywords; Intercultural Communication

Resumé: Dans le but de contribuer à la connaissance actuelle des communications interculturelles, cette étude explore les schémas culturels de ghesmat et le destin dans les sociétés persane et anglaise. En particulier, il essaie de montrer à quel point ces deux schémas culturels sont comparables à travers les locuteurs de ces deux communautés linguistiques. Les données ont été recueillies par une triangulation, c'est-à-dire à travers des observations ethnographiques, des films et des sites web. Les données recueillies ont été analysées qualitativement et quantitativement. Pour effectuer une analyse quantitative, la fréquence du schéma du destin et de ghesmat dans de différentes situations en anglais et en persan a été calculée. D'ailleurs, afin de trouver des thèmes sous-jacents de l'activation des schémas, une analyse qualitative de contenu et l'analyse sémantique de Wierzbicka ont été employées. Les résultats améliorent davantage les connaissances culturelles impliquées dans les communications interculturelles et discutent des rôles socioculturels de ghesmat et des schémas de destin culturels dans les communautés de la parole.
Mots-clés: Schéma; Schéma Culturel; Ghesmat; Destin; Mots-Clés Culturels; Communication Interculturelle

Keywords


Schema; Cultural Schema; Ghesmat; Fate; Cultural Keywords; Intercultural Communication;Schéma; Schéma Culturel; Ghesmat; Destin; Mots-Clés Culturels; Communication Interculturelle

References


Azadarmaki, T. (1997). Eximing renovation hypothesis: A case study of cultural fatalism in Iran. Culture, 22, 191- 208.

Colby, B. N. (1975 ). Culture grammars. Science 187, 913-919.

Conklin, H. C. (1962). Lexicographical treatment of folk taxonomies. In F. W. Householder & S. Saporta (Eds.), In problems in lexicography (pp. 119-141). Bloomington: Indiana Research Center in Anthropology, Folklore and Linguistics.

Fardia, N. (2006). Fatalism in Hafez Poems. Reflection of Thought, 78, 753-758.

Frake, C. O. (1962 ). The ethnographic study of cognitive systems. In D. C. Anthropological Society of Washington (Washington (Ed.), Anthropology and human behavior (pp. 72-85). Washington, DC: The Anthropological Society of Washington.

Heidarpour, A. (2007). Manifestation of destiny in the lives of some shahnameh’s heroes. Human Sciences 54, 237-252.

Hine, C. (2000). Virtual ethnography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Huberman, M. A., & Miles, M. B. (1994). Data management and analysis methods. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 428-444). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Johnson, D. (1992). Approaches to research in second language learning. New York: Longman.

Karami, M. (2003). Fate and destiny in literature and their effect on Iranian culture. Journal of the college of literature and social science, 168, 129-115-.

Kolbe, R. H., & Burnett, M. S. (1991). Content analysis research: an examination of applications for improving research reliability. Journal of Consumer Research, 18(3), 243–264.

Kracauer, S. (1952). The challenge of qualitative content analysis. Public Opinion Quarterly, 631–642.

Labov, W. (1970). The study of Language in its social context. Stadium Generale, 23, 30-87.

Locke, J. (1959). An essay concerning human understanding. NY: Dover.

Merriam-Webster, I. (2003). Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary: Merriam-Webster, Inc.

Miller, G. A., Galanter, E., & Pribram, K. H. (1960 ). Plans and the structure of behavior. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Nolan, P. (Ed.) (1967) New Catholic encyclopedia (Vols. 6).

Ringgren, H. (1952). Fatalism in Persian epics: Lundequistska bokhandeln.

Rumelhart, D. (1980). Schemata: The building blocks of cognition. In R. J. Spiro, B. Bruce & W. Brewer (Eds.), Theoretical issues in reading comprehension. . Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum.

Rumelhart, D., Smolensky, P., McClelland, J. L., & Hinton, G. E. (1986). Schemata and sequential thought processes in parallel distributed processing. In J. L. McClelland, D. E. Rumelhart & the PDP Research Group (Eds.), Parallel distributed processing: Explorations in the microstructure of cognition (Vol. 2, pp. 7–57). Cambridge: MIT Press/Bradford Books.

Schank, R. C., & Abelson, R. (1977). Scripts, plans, goals, and understanding. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates, Inc.

Schilling, J. (2006). On the pragmatics of qualitative assessment: designing the process for content analysis. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 22(1), 28–37.

Smith, C. (Ed.) (1903) Synonyms discriminated: a dictionary of synonymous words in the English language. Detroit: Gale Research Co.

Solomon, R. C. (2003). On fate and fatalism. Philosophy East and West, 53(4), 435-454.

Spradley, J. P. (1972 ). Foundations of cultural knowledge. In J. P. Spradley (Ed.), Culture and Cognition (pp. 3-38). San Francisco: Chandler Publishing Co.

Summers, D. (2005). Longman dictionary of contemporary English: Pearson Education.

Taghi, S. (2009). Fate definitions in iranian spoken and writen culture. Sweden: Baran Press.

Wallace, A. F. C. (1965 ). Driving to work. In M. E. Spiro (Ed.), Context and meaning in cultural anthropology (pp. 277-292). New York: The Free Press.

Werner, O. (1970 ). Cultural knowledge, language, and world view. In P. Garvin (Ed.), In Cognition: A Multiple View (pp. 155-176). New York: Spartan Press.

Wierzbicka, A. (1991). Cross-cultural Pragmatics. Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter.

Wierzbicka, A. (1992). Semantics, culture, and congnition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Wierzbicka, A. (2010). Cross-cultural communication and miscommunication: The role of cultural keywords. Intercultural Pragmatics, 7(1), 1–23.

Wierzbicka, A., & Goddard, C. (2004). Cultural scripts. Special issue of Intercultural Pragmatics, 1(2), 153–166.

Wolcott, H. F. (1992). Posturing in qualitative inquiry. In M. D. LeCompte, W. L. Millroy & J. Preissle (Eds.), The handbook of qualitative research in education (pp. 3-52). New York: Academic Press.

Wolfson, N. (1989). Perspectives: sociolinguistics and TESOL. Cambridge and New York: Newbury House.

Wolfson, N., & Manes, J. (1980). The compliment as a social strategy. Linguistics, 13(3), 391-410.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968%2Fj.ccc.1923670020110702.016

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Reminder

If you have already registered in Journal A and plan to submit article(s) to Journal B, please click the CATEGORIES, or JOURNALS A-Z on the right side of the "HOME".


We only use four mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases: caooc@hotmail.com; office@cscanada.net; ccc@cscanada.net; ccc@cscanada.org

Copyright © Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture (CAOOC)
Address:758, 77e AV, Laval, Quebec, H7V 4A8, Canada

Telephone: 1-514-558 6138
Http://www.cscanada.net; Http://www.cscanada.org
E-mail:caooc@hotmail.com; office@cscanada.net