Individual Competitiveness, Sense of Defeat, and Organizational Commitment: Comparisons Between Iranian and USA Employees

Elnaz Abaie, David Lester, Seyed Mohammad Kalantar

Abstract


Competition can result in improved productivity, but it can also result in feelings of defeat in those who lose the competition. According to Balconi and Vanutelli (2016), competition involving interpersonal interactions implies a process of social comparison. Competition may produce multiple effects directly related to self-perception and the social significance of the competition. The present study compared staff employees in universities in Iran and the USA (150 respondents in each country) to determine whether organizational commitment, competitiveness and feelings of defeat are associated. Iranian and American employees did not differ in their mean scores on organizational commitment, competitiveness or feelings of defeat. In both countries, those scoring higher for competitiveness had lower scores for feelings of defeat. However, while scores for organizational commitment and competitiveness were positively ass

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ahmadi, S., Namazizadeh, M., Abdoli, B. & Seyedalinezhad, A. (2010). Compare the motivation of the progress of the players of the top and bottom teams of the Premier Football League. Journal of Olympic, 47(3). Article #3.

Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance, and normative commitment. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63(1), 1-18. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1990.tb00506.x

Balconi, M., & Vanutelli, M. E. (2016). Competition in the brain. The contribution of EEG and fNIRS modulation and personality effects in social ranking. Frontiers in psychology, 7, 1587. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01587

Cohen, A., & Lowenberg, G. (1990). A re-examination of the side-bet theory as applied to organizational commitment: A meta-analysis. Human Relations, 43(10), 1015-1050. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1177%2F001872679004301005

Deutsch, M. (1949). A theory of cooperation and individual competition. Human Relations, 2, 129-152. Retrieved from https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/001872674900200204

Feshbach, S., & Weİner, B. (1991). Personality. Maryland: C. Heath and Com. Retrieved from https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=Feshbach+and+Weiner+%281991%29+&btnG=

Franken, R. E., & Brown, D. J. (1995). Why do people like individual competition? The motivation for winning, putting forth effort, improving one’s performance, performing well, being instrumental, and expressing forceful/aggressive behavior. Personality & Individual Differences, 19(2), 175-184. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869(95)00035-5

Franken, R. E. & Brown, D. J. (1996). The need to win is not adaptive: The need to win, coping strategies, hope and self-esteem. Personality & Individual Differences, 20(6), 805-808. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869(96)00026-8

Franken, R. E., & Princh, W. (1996). Dislike of individual competition and the need to win: Self-image concerns, performance concerns, and the distraction of attention. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 11(4), 695-712. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/1292309197?pqorigsite=gscholar&fromopenview=true

Ghanaatpisheh, E. (2005). Comparing the effect of individual competition and group competition on academic achievement. Iranian Journal of Education, 28(1), 130-168. Retrieved from https://www.sid.ir/en/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?ID=69160

Ghorbani, N., Watson, P. J., Krauss, S. W., Bing, M. N., & Davison, H. K. (2004). Social science as dialogue: Narcissism, individualist and collectivist values, and religious interest in Iran and the United States. Current Psychology, 23(2), 111-123. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02903072

Gilbert, P. (2006). Evolution and depression: Issues and implications. Psychological Medicine, 36(3), 287-297. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291705006112

Gilbert, P., & Allan, S. (1998). The role of defeat and entrapment (arrested flight) in depression: An exploration of an evolutionary view. Psychological Medicine, 28(3), 585-598. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291798006710

Hofstede, G. (ED.). (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/unf_research/53/

James, N. L., & Johnson, D. W. (1983). The relationship between attitudes toward social interdependence and psychological health with three criminal populations. Journal of Social Psychology, 121 (1), 131-143. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1983.9924475

Joshanloo, M., & Ghaedi, G. (2009). Value priorities as predictors of hedonic and eudaimonic aspects of well-being. Personality and Individual Difference, 47(4), 294-298. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2009.03.016

Kouski, Sh., Golshani, F., & Shirvani, B. (2012). Relation of individual competition and self-esteem with students’ educational achievement, Psychological Research Quarterly, 13(4), 89-101. Retrieved from https://www.sid.ir/fa/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?id=228482

Madsen, M. C. (1971). Developmental and cross-cultural differences in the cooperative and competitive behavior of young children. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2(4), 365-371. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1177%2F002202217100200406

Marin, G., Mejia, B., & Oberle, C. (1975). Cooperation as a function of place of residence in Colombian children. Journal of Social Psychology, 95(1), 127-128. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1975.9923244

Mathieu, J. E., & Zajac, D. M. (2009). A revise and meta-analysis of the antecedents, correlates, and consequences of organizational commitment. Psychological Bulletin, 108(2), 171-194. Retrieved from https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0033-2909.108.2.171

Maslow, A. H. (1998). Maslow on management. John Wiley. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/513f/3a15f9e784dd034031a304fa775479d80e07.pdf

Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1991). A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human Resource Management Review, 1(1), 61-89. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/1053-4822(91)90011-Z

Mosadeghrad, A. M., Ferlie, E., & Rosenberg, D. (2008). A study of the relationship between job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intention among hospital employees. Health Services Management Research, 21(4), 211-227. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1258%2Fhsmr.2007.007015

Mowday, R. T., Steers, R., Nowday, R., & Bulian, P. (1974). Organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover among psychiatric technicians. Journal of Applied Psychology, 59(5), 603-609. Retrieved from https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/h0037335

Nicholls, J. G. (1989). The competitive ethos and democratic education. Harvard University Press. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=CmdUo6P9CL0C&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=Nicholls+(1989)+&ots=WvIl6ALSZY&sig=6pqphkjVJgcYXWI2_4wdPUqzbsE#v=onepage&q=Nicholls%20(1989)&f=false

Porter, L. W., Mowday, R. T., & Steers, R. M. (1979). The measurement of organizational commitment. Journal of vocational behavior, 14(2), 224-247. Retrieved from https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=Mowday%2C+R.+T.%2C+%26+Steers%2C+R.+M.+%281979%29.+The+measurement+of+organizational+commitment&btnG=

Price, J. S. (1972). Genetic and phylogenetic aspects of mood variation. International Journal of Mental Health, 1(1-2), 124-144. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/41343909?seq=1&cid=pdf-reference

Rahnamay Rudposhti, F., & MahmoudZadeh, N. (2009). Developing human resources: case study, belonging, organizational commitment and completion. Industrial Management Organization. [In Persian] Retrieved from https://www.adinehbook.com/gp/product/9648896251

Sadeghi, J. (2012). Competitiveness and its relationship with academic achievement. Research Quarterly in Military Management, 11(41), 43-65. Retrieved from https://www.sid.ir/fa/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?id=196356

Sayed Alynezhad, A., Ahmadi, S., & Bahalke, T. (2012). Comparison of Competitiveness, Victory and Goalism of Physical Athlete Athletic Students, Non-Athlete Athlete. Islamic Azad University of Gorgan. Retrieved from https://www.civilica.com/Paper-SPORTIAU01-SPORTIAU01_236.html

Sloman, L., Gilbert, P., & Hasey, G. (2003). Evolved mechanisms in depression: The role and interaction of attachment and social rank in depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 74(2), 107-121. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-0327(02)00116-7

Swab, R. G., Johnson, P. D. (2019). Steel sharpens steel: A review of multilevel competition and competitiveness in organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 40(2), 147-165. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1002/job.2340

Tarsafi, M., Kalantarkousheh, S. M., & Lester, D. (2015). The defeat-entrapment theory versus Beck’s hopelessness theory of depression and sociality: A cross-national analysis in Iran and the United States. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 61(8), 777-780. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764015583921

Taylor, P. J., Gooding, P., Wood, A. M., & Tarrier, N. (2009). The role of defeat and entrapment in depression, anxiety and suicide. Psychological Bulletin, 137(3), 391-420. Retrieved from https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/a0022935

Taylor, P. J., Wood, A. M., Gooding, P., Johnson, J., & Tarrier, N. (2009). Are defeat and entrapment best defined as a single construct? Personality & Iindividual Differences, 47(7), 795-797. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2009.06.011

Taylor, P. J., Wood, A. M., Gooding, P., Johnson, J., & Tarrier, N. (2010). Defeat and entrapment in schizophrenia: The relationship with suicidal ideation and positive psychotic symptoms. Psychiatry Research, 178(2), 244-248. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2009.10.015

Thomas, D. R. (1975). Cooperation and individual competition among Polynesian and European children. Child development, 46(4), 948-953. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/1128402

Triandis, H. C. (1972). The analysis of subjective culture. Wiley-Interscience. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1973-02304-000

Weiner, B. (2012). An attributional theory of motivation and emotion. Springer-Verlag. Retrieved from https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=Weiner%2C+B.+%282012%29.+An+attributional+theory+of+motivation+and+emotion.+New+York%3A+Springer-Verlag.+&btnG=

Yousefi, B., Tahmasebi, V., & Hasani, Z. (2011). Comparison of intensity of perceived emotions before competition in athletes with behavioral patterns A and B. Sport Management, 5(2), 89-103. Retrieved from https://jsm.ut.ac.ir/article_21963.html




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968/12124

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2021 David Leste

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Share us to:   


Reminder

  • How to do online submission to another Journal?
  • If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:

1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author

  • Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.

2. Submission

  • Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.
  • We only use four mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases: caooc@hotmail.com; office@cscanada.net; ccc@cscanada.net; ccc@cscanada.org

 Articles published in Cross-Cultural Communication are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY).

 CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION Editorial Office

Address: 1020 Bouvier Street, Suite 400, Quebec City, Quebec, G2K 0K9, Canada. 
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138 
Website: Http://www.cscanada.net; Http://www.cscanada.org 
E-mail:caooc@hotmail.com; office@cscanada.net

Copyright © Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture