The Western Timepieces in China From the Late Ming to the Middle of the Qing Dynasty

Sisi LI, Francesco Freddolini

Abstract


Western timepieces were introduced to China in the 16th century and were favored by the Chinese upper class, and then gradually formed “Western Timepieces Consumption Heat” in China. Many Chinese churches, commercial buildings, and public buildings had Western timepieces, and officials, priests, merchants, servants, and actors also wear Western timepieces. As tributes, gifts and commodities, Western timepieces not only opened up new trade and political relations between China and the West, but also served as a material carrier for Chinese and Western art and cultural exchanges. Facing the massive introduction of Western timepieces, the attitude of the Chinese court towards Western timepieces was very different. Some upper class in China was willing to accept the multicultural and advanced ideas behind Western timepieces. Other upper classes, especially literati, had many criticisms of Western timepieces, insisting on the “Chinese Central Theory.” Behind these attitudes reflects the conflict and integration of Chinese and Western cultures and aesthetics, therefore, the introduction of Western timepieces into China has an important value and significance for exploring how Western culture influences the evolution and cultural transformation of early modern Chinese society.

Keywords


Western timepieces; Sino-western collecting; Early modern period

Full Text:

PDF

References


ltick, R. (1978). The shows of London. Massachusetts: Belknap Press.

Anderson, Aeneas (Ed.) (1796). A Narrative of the British Embassy to China in the years 1792, 1793, and 1794-Containing the Various Circumstances of the Embassy, with Accounts of the Customs and Manners of the Chinese, and Description of the Country Towns, Cities, etc. London: Harlow.

Beijing Palace Museum (Ed.) (2004). Timepieces in the Palace Museum <故宫钟表>. Beijing: The Forbidden City Publishing House.

Beijing Palace Museum (Ed.) (2008). Timepieces in the Imperial Palace Museum <故宫钟表图典>. Beijing: The Forbidden City Publishing House.

Braga, J. M. (1967). A seller of ‘Sing-Song’: A chapter in the foreign trade of China and Macao. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

Brook, T. (1998). The confusions of pleasure: Commerce and culture in Ming China. Berkeley: University of California Press.

China’s First Historical Archives (Ed.). (1984-1985). Memorial of Kangxi Dynasty<康熙朝汉文硃批奏折汇编康熙朝汉文硃批奏折汇编>. Beijing: China First Historical Archives Editorial Archives Publishing House.

China’s first historical archives (Ed.). The archives of The Royal Workshop of the Qing Imperial Household Department (Neiwufu)<清宫内务府造办处档案总汇>. Beijing: People’s Publishing House.

China’s first historical archives (中国第一历史档案馆编) (Ed.) (1994). Archives of corrupt officials in Qianlong Dynasty <乾隆朝惩办贪污档案选编>. Beijing: China Book Company.

Chu, P. T., & Ding, N. (Eds.) (2015). Qing encounters artistic exchanges between China and the west. Los Angeles: The Getty Research Institute.

Dunne, G. H. (Ed.) (2003). The story of the Jesuits in China in the Last Decades of the Ming Dynasty<明朝末年中国耶稣会士的故事>. Shanghai: Shanghai Classics Publishing House.

Guo, F. X. (2013). Historical images of time: A collection of history of Chinese clocks and watches <时间的历史映像中国钟表史论集>. Beijing: Beijing Palace Museum Publishing House.

Guo, F. X. (2014). Review on the study of the palace clock history for the 10 years <十年来宫廷钟表史研究述评>. The Imperial Palace Journal, (12), 403-415.

Harcourt-Smith, S. (Ed.) (1933). A catalogue of various clocks, watches, automata and other miscellaneous objects of European workmanship dating from the XVIIIth and the early XIXth centuries. Beijing: Palace Museum.

Harlow, V. T. (1953). British colonial developments, 1774-1834. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Hevia, J. L. (1995). Cherishing men from afar: Qing guest ritual and the Macartney embassy of 1793. Durham: Duke University Press.

Jesus, C. A. (1926). Montalto De. Historic Macao, international traits in China old and new. Macao: Salesian Printing Press and Tipografia Mercantil.

Kerou, D. (2002). Liuhu <柳弧>. Shanghai: China Publishing House.

Kleutghen, K. (2015). Imperial illusions: Crossing pictorial boundaries in the Qing Palaces. England: University of Washington Press.

La Haye (Ed.) (2001). Description de la Chine (D. D. Zheng, Trans). Henan: Elephant Press.

Liang, G. C. (1995). Beidongyuan transcript sequel <北东园笔录续编> (Vol. 2). Jiangsu: Guangling Ancient Books.

Liang, T. N. (2014). Guangdong customs <粤海关志>. Guangdong: Guangdong People’s Publishing House.

Macgowan, D. J. (1886). Chinese guilds or chambers of commerce and trades unions. Shanghai: China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society.

Moese, H. B. (1966). The chronicles of the East India Company Trading to China. Taiwan: Paragon Book Gallery.

Needham, J. T. M. (2000). How did the Chinese invent the mechanical clock? <中国人是如何发明机械钟的>. Journal of National Museum of Chinese History, (2), 122-126.

Nieuhof, J. (1903). An embassy from the East-India Company of the united provinces (Ogilby, J., Trans.). London: Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths.

Pagani, C. (1995). Clockmaking in China udser the Kangxi and Qianlong Emperor. Arts Asiatiques, (50), 76-84.

Pagani, C. (2001). “Eastern Magnificence & European Ingenuity”: Clocks of Late Imperial China. MI: University of Michigan Press.

Pointon, M. (1999). Dealer in Magic: James Cox’s Jewelry Museum and the Economics of Luxurious Spectacle in Late-Eighteenth-Century London. History of Political Economy, (31), 423-451.

Ren,W. P., Guo, F. X., & Han, B. C. (2018). Material and cultural exchanges between China and foreign countries in the 17th and 18th centuries <宫廷与异域-1718世纪的中外物质文化交流>. Xiamen: Xiamen University Press.

Ricci, M. (1942, 1953). China in the 16th Century: The Journals of Matthew Ricci, 1583-1610 (J. Louis and S. J. Gallagher, Trans.). New York: Random House.

Ripa, M. (1855). Chapter XX. In Memoirs of Father Ripa during thirteen years’ residence at the court of Peking in the service of the Emperor of China: with an account of the foundation of the college for the education of young Chinese at Naples. London: J. Murray.

Robbins, H. (1908). Our first ambassador to China: An account of the life of George, Earl of Macartney. London: E.P..

Slavíče, K. (1727). Listy z Ciny <中国来信: 1716-1735> (M. Li, Trans.). Henan: Elephant Press.

Smith, R. (2000). James Cox (c. 1723-1800): A Revised Biography. The Burlington Magazine, 142(1167), 353-361.

Staunton, G., Macartney, G. M., & Gower, E. (1797). An authentic account of an embassy from the King of Great Britain to the Emperor of China. London: G. Nicol.

The First Historical Archives of China (Ed.) (1996). Compilation of archives and historical materials of British ambassador Magni’s visit to China <英使马格尔尼访华档案史料汇编>. Peking: International Culture Publishing Corporation.

Trigault, N. S. J. (Ed.). (1953). China in the sixteenth century: The Journals of Mathew Ricci: 1583-1610 (Vol.4. G. J. He, Z. Z. Wang, & S. Li, Chines Trans.). Beijing: China Book Company. (J. Louis & S. J. Gallagher, English Trans.). New York: Random House, Inc..

Yong, J. H. (2009). A study of the picture album of subordinate peoples of the Qing Dynasty <皇清职贡图研究>. Journal of Inner Mongolia University for Nationalities (Social Sciences), 35(5), 31-33.

Yun, J., & Rong, Y. (Eds.) (1792). The Si Ku Quan Shu <四库全书>. Beijing: Beijing Palace Museum.

Zhao, L. (1980). Xiao Ting Xu Lu <啸亭续录> (Vol. 3). Shanghai: China Publishing House.

Zhao, Y. (1997). Yan Bao Za Ji <檐曝杂记> (Vol.2). Shanghai: China Publishing House.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968/11990

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2021 Sisi LI

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Share us to:   


Reminder

  • How to do online submission to another Journal?
  • If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:

1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author

  • Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.

2. Submission

  • Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.
  • We only use four mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases: caooc@hotmail.com; office@cscanada.net; ccc@cscanada.net; ccc@cscanada.org

 Articles published in Cross-Cultural Communication are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY).

 CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION Editorial Office

Address: 1020 Bouvier Street, Suite 400, Quebec City, Quebec, G2K 0K9, Canada. 
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138 
Website: Http://www.cscanada.net; Http://www.cscanada.org 
E-mail:caooc@hotmail.com; office@cscanada.net

Copyright © Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture