Educational Planning for Trilingual Program in Northeast Asia: Focusing on Trilingualism of Korean Minorities in China

Jinghua ZHANG, Yinghao LI


Trilingual phenomenon becomes more popular among ethnic groups in China. In the last decade, more ethnic groups get concerned with trilingual education under the influence of foreign language education and development of cultural exchange. Educational planning for multi-lingual minorities faces both great opportunities and challenges. Educational innovation and cultivations of trilingual program become rather urgent for trilingual groups living in China. 


Trilingual program; Korean ethnics; Educational planning; Innovation

Full Text:



Aomubasier. (2004). Theoretical and practical framework of experimental research of trilingual education. Journal of Research on Education for Ethnic Minorities, 15(1), 55-62.

Baker, C. (2001). Foundations of bilingual education and bilingualism. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Burstall, C. (1977). Primary French in the balance. Foreign Language Annuals, 10, 245-252.

Cenoz, J., & Genesee, F. (1998). Psycholinguistic perspectives on multilingualism and multilingual education. In J. Cenoz & F. Genesee (Eds.), Beyond Bilingualism: Multilingualism and multilingual education. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters LTD.

Cenoz, J., Hufeisen, B., & Jessner, U. (2001). Cross-linguistic influence in third language acquisition: Psychological perspective. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters LTD.

Cummins, J. (1979). Cognitive/academic language proficiency, linguistic interdependence, the optimum age question and some other matters. Working Papers on Bilingualism, 19, 121-129.

Cummins, J. (1981). The role of primary language development in promoting educational success for language minority students. In California State Department of Education (Eds.), Schooling and language minority students: A theoretical framework. Los Angeles: Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, California State University.

Cummins, J. (2000). Putting language proficiency in its place: Responding to critique of the conversational/academic language distinction. In J. Cenoz & U. Jessner (Eds.), English in Europe: The acquisition of a third language. England: Multilingual Matters LTD.

Dai, Q. X. (2005). Bulletin of the fifteenth planning project key project of ministry of education. Beijing: National Office for Education Sciences Planning.

EU Commission’s White Paper. (1995). Teaching and learning: Towards the learning society. Brussels: European Union.

Ge, X. Z. (2003). Three problems in trilingual education. Journal of Dali University, 2(6), 83-88.

Genesee, F. (1998). A case study of multilingual education in Canada. In J. Cenoz & F. Genesee (Eds.), Beyond bilingualism: Multilingualism and multilingual education. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters LTD.

Genesee, F. (2001). Second language immersion: A summary for teachers, administrators and parents. Retrieved from

Guan, X. Q. (1995). Experimental research of ethnic minorities’ bilingual education in China. Journal of Research on Education for Ethnic Minorities, 4.

Guo, T. X., Menggenqiqige, & Tang, S. G. (2003). A research on Inner Mongolian Bilingual and trilingual teaching innovation. Journal of Inner Mongolia Normal University (Educational Science), 16(1), 48-50.

Heller, M. (2003). Globalization, the new economy, and the commodification of language and identity. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 7(4), 473-492.

Krachen, S. D., Long, M. H., & Scarcella, R. (1979). Age, rate and eventual attainment in second language acquisition. TESOL Quarterly, 9, 573-582.

Lasagabaster, D. (2000). Three languages and three linguistic models in the basque educational syste. In J, Cenoz & Jessner, U. (Eds.), English in Europe: The acquisition of a third language. England: Multilingual Matters LTD.

Lenneberg, E. (1967). Biological foundations of language. New York: Wiley.

Li, A. J. (2006). Chinese phonetic research and phonetic technology development. The 11th National Advanced Forum of Phonetics.

Lightbown, P., & Spada, N. (1993). How languages are learned. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Li, Y. H., & Zhang, J. H. (2006). Basic features of ethnic minorities’ English education and teaching organization. Proceeding of the 2nd International Foreign Language Teaching Forum. Shang Foreign Language Education Press.

Lynch, J. (1992). Education for citizenship in a multicultural society. New York: Cassell.

Munoz, C. (2000). Bilingualism and trilingualism in school students in Catalonia. In J. Cenoz & U. Jessner (Eds.), English in Europe: The acquisition of a third language. England: Multilingual Matters LTD.

Penfield, W. (1953). A consideration of the neurophysiological mechanisms of speech and some educational consequences. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 82, 201-214.

Scovel, T. (1988). A time to speak: A psycholinguistic inquiry into the critical period for human speech. MA: Newbury House.

Su D. (2005). Development of bilingual education from multiple views—A case study of Inner Mongolia elementary and middle schools (Dissertation). Beijing: Minzu University of China.

Tian, J. L. (2001). Trilingual education of Tibet in the past, present and future. Journal of Tibet University, 16(4), 75-79.

Wang, B. H. (2003). Bilingual education and teaching. Shanghai: Shanghai Educational Press.

Wu, L. J. (2005). Understanding trilingual education of ethnic minorities. Guizhou Ethnic Studies, 25(4), 181-183.

Zhang, D. F. (1997). Korean students choosing han ethnic schools: Cultural adaptation in drastic social changes—social anthropological research of ethnic minority education in Antu county. Journal of Research on Education for Ethnic Minorities, 4, 48-51.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Jinghua Zhang

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Share us to:   


  • How to do online submission to another Journal?
  • If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:

1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author

  • Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.

2. Submission

  • Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.
  • We only use four mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases:;;;

 Articles published in Cross-Cultural Communication are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY).


Address: 1020 Bouvier Street, Suite 400, Quebec City, Quebec, G2K 0K9, Canada. 
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138 
Website: Http://; Http://;

Copyright © Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture