Principal Points in Cementing Geothermal Wells
Geothermal energy is becoming an important source of energy and its importance will be increasing in the future. When we drill geothermal wells, we encounter high temperature zones and may also encounter high pressure areas. Cementing in high temperature environments such as geothermal wells is very challenging. The survey that was sent to High-Pressure-High-Temperature (HPHT) professionals at the HPHT Summit meeting in 2012, showed Cement Design is one of the biggest concerns for HPHT operations and it is one of their technology gaps. Temperatures as high as 200 °C-400 °C could destabilize the setting of the cement. If the well has both high temperature and high pressure, the cementing process becomes much more complex. This article discusses various aspects of cementing procedures and considerations for geothermal wells including cements design considerations, crucial problems, and some technology solutions.
Key words: Geothermal energy; HPHT; Geothermal well
 Abdul-Rahman, R., & Chong, A. (1997). Cementing Multilateral Well With Latex Cement. Presentation at the 1997 SPE/IADC Drilling Conference, 4-6 March, 1997, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
 Al-Yami, A. S., Nasr-El-Din, H. A., Al-Humaidi, A. S., Al-Saleh, S. H., & Al-Arfaj, M. K. (2010). Evaluation and Optimization of Low-Density Cement: Laboratory Studies and Field Application. SPE Drilling and Completion, 25(1), 70-89.
 Alotaibi, M. B., Nasr-El-Din, H. A., Hill, A. D., & Moajil, A. M. (2010). An Optimized Method To Remove Filter Cake Formed by Formate-Based Drill-In Fluid in Extended-Reach Wells. SPE Drilling and Completion, 25(2), 253-262.
 Anderson, J. W., Buchanan, A. I., & Susanto, A. (1996). New Technology Improves Cement Slurry Design. Presentation at the 1996 SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference, 28-31 October 1996, Adelaide, Australia.
 API Work Group Reports Field Tests of Geothermal Cements. (1985). API Task Group on Cements for Geothermal Wells. Oil and Gas Journal, Feb. 11, 93-97.
 BBC. (2013). Geothermal Energy. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/aqa_pre_2011/energy/mainselectricityrev5.shtml. Downloaded January 2013
 Barlet-Gouedard, V., & Goffe, B. (2002). Cementing Compositions and Application of These Compositions to Cementing Oil Wells and the Like. Patent PCT WO 01/70646, 2002.
 Barlet-Gouedard, V., & Vidick, B. (2001). A Non-Conventional Way of Developing Cement Slurries for Geothermal Wells. Transactions of the Geothermal Resources Council Annual Meeting, Davis, California, USA, 2001.
 Becker, T. E., & Gardiner, N. H. (2000). Laboratory Modeling of Mudcake Application and Erosion for Gravel-Pack Design in Horizontal Wells. SPE Drilling Completion, September, 2000.
 Bern, P. A. et al. (1998). Barite Sag: Measurement, Modeling and Management. IADC/SPE 47784 was Presented at the 1998 IADC/SPE Asia Pacific Drilling Conference, 7-9 September 1998, Jakarta, Indonesia.
 Bernard, B., Hernandez, R., & Nguyen, H. (2009). Foamed Calcium Aluminate Phosphate Cement Enables Drilling and Cementation of California Geothermal Wells. SPE 120845 was Prepared for Presentation at the 2009 SPE Western Regional Meeting, 24-26 March 2009, San Jose. California, USA.
 Brookehaven National Laboratory. (2000). Brookhaven Lab, Halliburton Company and Unocal Corporation Win R&D 100 Award for High Pergormance Cement. Retrieved March 9, 2007, from http://www.bnl.gov/bnlweb/pubaf/pr/2000/bnlpr080200.html
 Cho, H., Shah, S. N., & Osisanya, S. O. (2001). Effects of Fluid Flow in a Porous Cuttings-Bed on Cuttings Transport Efficiency and Hydraulics. SPE 71374 Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, September 30 – October 3, 2001.
 Crammond, N. J., & Currie, R. J. (1993). Survey Condition of Precast High-Alumina Cement Components in Internal Locations in 14 Existing Buildings. Magazine of Concrete Research, 43(165), 275-279.
 Daccord, G., Guillot, D., & Nilsson, F. (2006). Mud Removal (Well Cementing 2nd edition).
 Degouy, D., & Martin, M. (1993). Characterization of the Evolution of Cementing Materials After Aging Under Severe Bottomhole Conditions. SPE Drilling & Completion, 8(1), 57-63.
 Denny, D. (2005). Technology Application.
 Dickson, M. H., & Fanelli, M. (2012). What is Geothermal Energy? Retrieved from www.geothermal-energy.org/314.what_is_geothermal_energy .html
 Eilers, L. H., Nelson, E. B., & Moran, L. K. (1983). High Temperature Cement Composition–Pectolite, Scawtite, Truscottite or Xonotlite: Which Do You Want? First Presented at the 1980 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. Dallas, Sept, 21-24.
 Eilers, L. H., & Root, R. L. (1974). Long Term Effects of High Temperature on Strength Retrogression of Cements. SPE 5028 was Prepared for the 49th Annual Fall Meeting of the Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME. Huston Texas, October 6–9, 1974.
 Feng, Z. Z., Njee, J. M., Min, H., Ming, S. A., Min, Z., & Sheng, S. F. (2012). Successful Implementation of HT Geothermal Drilling Technology in Kenya. IADC/SPE 155831 was Prepared for Presentation at the IADC/SPE Asia Pacific Drilling Technology Conference and Exhibition. Tianjin, China, 9-11July, 2012.
 Finger, J., & Blankenship, D. (2010). Handbook of Best Practices for Geothermal Drilling. Sandia Report SAND2010-6048, Sandia National Laboratories. December, 2010, California.
 Fuquan, S., Guangming, L. V., & Jianzhou, J. (2006). Application and Research of Latex Tenacity Cement Slurry System. SPE 104434 was Prepared for Presentation at the 2006 SPE International Oil & Gas Conference and Exhibition. Beijing, China, 5-7 December, 2006.
 Gallus, J. P., Pyle, D. E., & Moran, L. K. (1979). Physical and Chemical Properties of Cement Exposed to Geothermal Dry Steam. SPE 7876 was Presented at the 1979 SPE of AIME International Symposium on Oilfield and Geothermal Chemistry. Huston, Texas, 22-24 January, 1979.
 Gallus, J. P., Watters, L. T., & Pyle, D. E. (1978). Performance of Oilwell Cementing Compositions in Geothermal Well. SPE 7591 was Presented at the SPE AIME 53rd Annual Fall Technical Conference and Exhibition. Huston, 1-3 October, 1978.
 Gaurina, N., Medimurec, D., Matanovic, D., & Krklec, G. (1994). Cement Slurries for Geothermal Wells Cementing. Croatia: Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum Engineering.
 Geohil, A. G. (2013). Geothermal Energy. Retrieved from http://www.mpoweruk.com/geothermal_energy.htm
 Ghori, KAR. (2006). The Search for Western Australia’S Geothermal Resources. Technical papers, Annual Review 2006-07.
 Griffith, J. E., & Ravi, K. M. (1995). Monitoring Circulatable Hole with Real-Time Correction: Case Histories. SPE 29470 Presented at the Production Operations Symposium. Oklahoma, Oklahoma, USA, April 2-4, 1995.
 Hedenquest, J. W., & Stewart, M. K. (1985). Natural Co2-Rich Steam Heated Waters in the Broadlands-Ohaaki Geothermal System, New Zealand: Their Chemistry Distribution and Corrosive Nature. Geothermal Resources Council, International Symposium Energy. Hawaii, August 26, 1985.
 Hutchinson, M., & Razmer-Cooper, L. (1998). Using Downhole Annular Pressure Measurements to Anticipate Drilling Problems. SPE 49114 was Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, September 27-30, 1998.
 International Geothermal Association. Installed Generating Capacity–Electric Generation. Retrieved from http://www.geothermal-energy.org/226,installed_generating_capacity.html
 Johnson, M. H., Ashton, J. P., & Nguyen, H. (1992). The Effects of Erosion Velocity on Filter Cake Stability During Gravel Placement of Openhole Horizontal Gravel-Pack Completion. SPE 23773 was Presented at the SPE International Symposium on Formation Damage Control. Lafayette, Louisiana, USA, February 26-27, 1992.
 Jones, P. H., & Berdine, D. (1940). Oil Well Cementing: Factors Influencing Bond Between Cement and Formation. API Drilling and Production Practices. Washington, D.C., USA, American Petroleum Institute, March 1940.
 Jones, R. R., & Carpenter, R. B. (1991). New Latex, Expanding Thixotropic Cement Systems Improve Job Performance and Reduce Cost. SPE 21010 was Prepared for Presentation at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry. Anaheim, California, February 20-22, 1991.
 Kalousek, G. L., & Chaw, S. Y. (1976). Research on Cements for Geothermal and Deep Oil Wells. SPE 5940 was Presented at the SPE-AIME 51st Annual Fall Technical Conference and Exhibition. New Orleans, 3-6 October, 1976.
 Laws, M., Riaymi, A., & Soek, H. et al. (2006). Special Cement System and Cementing Techniques Improve Zonal Isolation in South Oman Fields. SPE 102414 was Prepared for Presentation at the 2006 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exibition. San Antonio, Texas, USA, 24-17 September, 2006.
 Milestone, N. B., Sugama, T., Kukacka, L. E., & Caricello, N. (1986). Carbonation of Geothermal Grouts-Part 1. Cement and Concrete Research, 16, 941-950.
 Moore, R., Bour, D. L., Reed, S., & Hernandez, R. (2003). High-Temperature Wells with Lost-Circulation Demands and Reverse Circulation Placement Technique Using Foamed Cement System: Two Case Histories. SPE 84563 was Prepared for Presentation at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. Denver, Colorado, USA, 5-8 October, 2003.
 Moore, R., Bour, D. L., Reed, S., & Hernandez, R. (2005). High-Temperature Wells with Lost-Circulation Demands and Reverse Circulation Placement Technique Using Foamed Cement System: Two Case Histories. SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. 5-8 October 2003, Denver, Colorado.
 Mukhalalaty, T., Al-Suwaidi, A., & Shaheen, M. (1999). Increasing Well Life Cycle by Elimination the Multistage Cementer and Utilizing a Light Weight High Performance Slurry. SPE 53283 was Prepared for Presentation at the 1999 SPE Middle East Oild Show. Bahrain, 20-23 February, 1999.
 Nabi, A. G., Qureshi, S. A., & Arif, M. U. (2010). Designing of Ultralight Slurry for Liner Cementation: Case Study. SPE 13269 was Prepared for Presentation at the Trinidad and Tobago Energy Resources Conference. Port of Spain, Trinidad, 27-30 June, 2010.
 Nelson, E. B., & Eilers, L. H. (1979). Effect of Silica Particle Size on Degradation of Silica Stabilized Portland Cement. SPE 7875 was Presented in the 1979 SPE of AIME International Symposium on Oilfield and Geothermal Chemistry. Huston, Texas, January 22-24, 1979.
 Nelson, E. B., & Eilers, L. H. (2006). Well Cementing (2nd edition). France: Schlumberger.
 Nelson, E. B., Eilers, L. H., & Spangle, L. B. (1981). Evaluation and Development of Cement System for Geothermal Wells. SPE 10217 was Presented at the 56th Annual Fall Technical Conference and Exhibition of the Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME. San Antonio, Texas, 5-7 October, 1981.
 Nelson, E. B., & Gouedard, V. B. (2006). Thermal Cementing. Well Cementing (2nd edition).
 Nelson, E. B., Michaux, M., & Drochon, B. (2006). Cement Additives and Mechanism of Action. Well Cementing (2nd edition).
 North, J., Brangetto, M. O., & Gray, E. (2000). Central Graben Extreme Offshore High Pressure/High Temperature Cementing Case Study. IADC/SPE 59169 was Prepared for Presentation at the 2000 IADC/SPE Drilling Conference. New Orleans, Louisiana, 23-25 February 2000.
 Ostroot, G. W., & Shryock, S. (1964). Cementing Geothermal Steam Wells. SPE 904 was Presented at 89th SPE Annual Fall Meeting. Huston Texas, 11-14 October, 1964.
 Ravi, K. M., Beirute, R. M., & Covington, R. L. (1993). Improve Primary Cementing by Continuous Monitoring of Circulation Hole. SPE 26574 was Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. Huston, Texas, USA, October 3-6, 1993.
 Ravi, K., Fukuzawa, M., Hunter, W. J., & Noerdin, A. I. (2008). Advance Cement System Used to Improve Geothermal Well Reability in Java. SPE 11538 was Prepared for Presentation at the 2008 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. Denver, Colorado, USA, 21-24 September, 2008.
 Ripley, H. E., Harms, W. W., Sutoon, D. I., & Watters, L. T. (1981). Ultra-Low Density Cementing Compositions. Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology, 20(1).
 Roy, D. M., White, E. I., Lengton, C. A., & Grutzeck, M. W. (1979). Potential New High Temperature Cements for Geothermal Wells. SPE 7877 was Presented at the 1979 SPE of AIME International Symposium on Oilfield and Geothermal Chemistry. Huston, Texas, 22-24 January, 1979.
 Roy, D. M., Langton, C. A., Grutzek, M. W., & White, E. L. (1980). Hydrothermal High Temperature Cements for Potential Geothermal Application. SPE 8994 was Presented at the SPE Fifth International Symposium on Oilfield and Geothermal Chemistry. Stanford, California, 28-30 May, 1980.
 Rozieres, J., & Ferriere, R. (1991). Foamed-Cement Characterization Under Downhole Conditions and Its Impact on Job Design. SPE Production Engineering, 6(3), 297-304.
 Sanchez, R. A., Azar, J. J., Bassal, A. A., & Martins, A. L. (1999). Effect of Drillpipe Rotation on Hole Cleaning During Directional-Well Drilling. SPE Journal, 4(2), 101-108.
 Sabins, F. (2000). Ultra Light Cement. 1 October 1 – 31 December, 2000.
 Sewell, M., & Billingsley, J. (2002). An Effective Approach to Keeping the Hole Clean in High-Angle Wells. World Oil, 10.
 Shadravan, A., & Amani, M. (2012). HPHT 101–What Every Engineer or Geoscientist Should Know About High Pressure High Temperature Wells. SPE 163376 was Prepared for Presentation at the SPE Kuwait International Petroleum Conference and Exhibition. Kuwait City, Kuwait, 10-12 December 2012.
 Shen, J. C., & Pye, D. S. (1989). Effects of CO2 Attack on Cement in High-Temperature Application. SPE/IADC 18618 was Prepared for Presentation at the 1989 SPE/IADC Drilling Conference. New Orleans, Louisiana, 28 February – 3 March, 1989.
 Shryock, S. H. (1984). Geothermal Well Cementing Technology. Session 14, Drilling/Geothermal, 5th Offshore South East Asia.
 Smith, R. C. (1984). Successful Primary Cementing Can Be a Reality. Journal of Petroleum Technology, 36(11), 1851-1858.
 Smith, R., Powers, C. A., & Dobkins, T. A. (1980). A New Ultra Lightweight Cement With Super Strength. Journal of Petroleum Technology, 32(8),1438-1444.
 Smith, T. R. (1990). Cementing Displacement Practice: Field Applications. Journal of Petroleum Technology, 5, 564.
 Suman, G. O., & Ellis, R. C. (1977). World Oil’s Cementing Oil and Gas Well, Including Casing Handling Procedures. Huston, Texas, USA: Gulf Publishing Company.
 Schlumberger, CemNet. (2002). Controls Lost Circulation to Improve Cement Returns. France: Schlumberger.
 Tanner, C. H., & Harms, W. M. (1983). Unique Ultra Light-Weight Cement Slurry Compositions for Use in Unique Well Conditions, Laboratory Evaluation and Field Performance. SPE 11486 was Presented at the Middle East Oil Technical Conference of the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Manama, Bahrain, 14-17 March, 1983.
 Taylor, H. F. W. (1964). The Chemistry of Cements. London: Academic Press Inc.
 Teodoriu, C., Yuan, Z., Schubert, J., & Amani, M. (2012). Experimental Measurements of Mechanical Parameters of Class G Cement. SPE 153007 was Presented at the SPE/EAGE European Unconventional Resources Conference and Exhibition. Vienna, Austria, 20-22 March 2012.
 Turki, W. H., & Mackay, A. S. (1983). Primary Cementing Across Massive Lost Circulation Zones. SPE 11490 was Presented at the Middle East Oil Technical Conference of the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Manama, Bahrain, March 14-17, 1983.
 Way, P. H., Howard, P., & Johnson, A. (1998). Jetting Clean-up Of Formation Damage Caused by the Drilling Process. SPE 62799 Presented at the Asia Pacific Drilling Technology Conference. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, September 11-13, 2000.
 Weber, L. et al. (1998). The Application of a New Corrosion Resistant Cement in Geothermal Wells. Transaction of the Geothermal Resources Council. Davis, California, USA, 1998.
 Wikipedia. (2013). Population Growth Rate. Retrieved form http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Population_growth_rate#Population_growth_rate
 Wikipedia. (2013). World Population. Retrieved form http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_population
 Wikipedia. (2013). World Population History. Retrieved form http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berkas:World_population_history.svg
 Yuan, Z., Al-Yami, A., Scubert, J., & Teodoriu, C. (2012). Cement Failure Probability Under HPHT Conditions Supported by Long Term Lab Studies and Field Cases. SPE 154746 was Prepared for Presentation at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Technical Conference and Exhibition. San Antonio, Texas, USA, 8-10 October, 2012.
 Zeldinm, A. N., & Kukacka, L. E. (1980). Polymer Cement Geothermal Well Completion Materials. Brookhaven National Laboratory Report BNL 51287. New York City, New York, USA.
 Zeng, J., Sun, F., Li, P., Liu, A., & Gao, Y. (2012). Study of Salt-Tolerable Latex Cement Slurries”. Isope 1-12-075 Proceeding of the Twenty-second (2012) International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference. Rhodes, Greece, 17-22 June, 2012.
- There are currently no refbacks.
If you have already registered in Journal A and plan to submit article(s) to Journal B, please click the button "Authors" on the right side of the journal title in the website: http://www.cscanada.net
We only use three mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases:
email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
Copyright © 2010 Canadian Research & Development Center of Sciences and Cultures
Address: 758, 77e AV, Laval, Quebec, H7V 4A8, Canada
Telephone: 1-514-558 6138