Characteristics and Numerical Simulation of Extensional Structure Since Late Mesozoic in Western Shandong, China

HU Qiuyuan, LI Li, LI Yongpeng


The extensional structure in western Shandong is composed of steep normal fault and décollement fault, which two together constitute a unique “extensional structure framework”. With the regional geological survey of West Shandong Rise and seismic data from Jiyang Depression, we make comprehensive researches on extensional structural features in western Shandong. A number of NW-trending and NWW-trending normal faults, together with several NE-trending and nearly EW-trending faults, constitute a typical “fault-block style” all over the research area. In the steep normal fault zone, there are dynamic breccia, fault clay and scraping trace making up signs of faults activity. Low-angle décollement faults are mainly found at unconformity / lithologically abrupt interfaces or disconformity surfaces, of which the most outstanding in western Shandong occurred along unconformity surface between the Archean and Cambrian (Ar/∈), and the disconformity surface between the Ordovician and Carboniferous (O/C). Based on the finite element method, we use the software of Ansys12.0 to carry out tectonic stress field numerical simulation of the evolution in research area since late Mesozoic. The result indicates that the strength of the tectonic stress field has experienced a process from strong to weak since late Mesozoic. The evolution of extensional structures of western Shandong commenced in late Jurassic, with the direction of NE-SW. And the research area entered its first massive extended fault-depression phase in Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous (140 - 65 Ma). Then the extension continued in Paleocene-Early Eocene (65 - 53 Ma) which was a transforming transitional period with its extending orientation transformed from NE-SW to SN. In Eocene-Oligocene (53 - 23.3 Ma) the extension met its large-scale extensional activity with the direction of NW-SE. As can be seen in the study, the essential dynamic origin is mainly influenced by the structural changes since late Mesozoic, and the chief factors leading to the tectonic stress field change are the subduction of the Pacific Plate and the strike slip motion of the boundary faults.
Key words: Numerical simulation; Extensional structures; Since late Mesozoic; Western Shandong


Numerical simulation; Extensional structures; Since late Mesozoic; Western Shandong

Full Text:



[1] Higgins, R. I., & Harris, L. B. (1997). The effect of cover composition on extensional faulting above re-activated basement faults: Results from analogue modeling. Journal of Structural Geology, 19(1), 89-98.

[2] Li, S. Z., Yue, Y. F., Gao, Z. P., Hao, D. F., Shan, Y. H., & Xu, S. M. (2003). Features and genesis of faults in extensional basins. Geology and Mineral Resources of South China, (2), 1-8.

[3] Yan, D. P., Tian, C. L., Meng, L. B., Zhang, J. Z., & Zhou, M. F. (2003). Balanced geological section for extensional tectonic basin and its implication: an example from Southern Songliao Basin. Earth Science, 28(3), 275-280.

[4] Cembrano, J., González, G., & Arancibia, G. (2005). Fault zone development and strain partitioning in an extensional strike-slip duplex: A case study from the Mesozoic Atacama fault system, Northern Chile. Tectonophysics, 400, 105-125.

[5] Su, H., Qu, L. P., Zhang, J. C, Wang, P. X., He, F., Wang, M., Wang, Q., & Hu, Y. J. (2006). The tectonic evolution and extensional pattern of rifted basin: A case study of Dongpu depression. Oil & Gas Gelology, 27(1), 70-77.

[6] Zong, G. H., Xiao, H. Q., Li, C. B., Shi, Y. S., & Wang, L. S. (1999). Evolution of Jiyang Depression and its tectonic implications. Geological Journal of China Universities, 5(3), 275-282.

[7] Wang, B. S., & Wang, X. E. (2000). Characteristics of extensional structures in Western Shandong and their influence on coal mine production. Coal Geology & Exploration, 28(3), 20-24.

[8] Zheng, D. S., Wu, Z. P., Li, W., & Zhou, Y. Q. (2005). Faults and their control on the basin during the transfer stage of the Jiyang Depression in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Acta Geologica Sinica, 79(3), 385-394.

[9] Li, L., Zhong, D. L., Shi, X. P., Tang, Z. B., Gong, H. B., & Hu, Q. Y. (2007). Late Mesozoic extensional structure and its constrains on mineralization in western Shandong. Geological Review, 54(4), 449-458.

[10] Li, L., Zhong, D. L., Yang, C. C., Shi, X. P., & Gong, H. B. (2009). The décollement structures in Jiyang Depression, Bohai Bay basin, China. Geophys, 51(2), 521-530.

[11] Li, S. Z., Wang, J. D., Liu, J. Z., Yu, J. G., Lu, H. Q., & Hou, F. H. (2005). Mesozoic structure and its tectonic setting in the western Shandong block. Acta Geologica Sinica, 79(4), 487-497.

[12] Jiang, H. C., Zhang, Y., Ren, F. L., & Zhang, J. D. (2008). Comparative analysis of Meso-Cenozoic tectonic evolutions of the Jiyang and Linqing depressions and Luxi area. Geology in China, 35(5), 963-974.

[13] Houseman, G. A., & England, P. C. (1996). A lithospheric thickening model for the Indo-Asian collision. In Yin, A., & Hrrison, T. M. (Eds.), The Tectonic Evolution of Asia (pp. 3-17). New York, USA: Cambridge University Press.

[14] Bird, P., & Piper, K. (1980). Plane-stress finite element models of tectonic flow in southern California. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 21(2-3), 158-175.

[15] England, P. C., Houseman, G. A., & Sonder, L. (1985). Length scales for continental deformation in convergent, divergent, and strike-slip environments: Analytical and approximate solutions for a thin viscous sheet model. Journal of Geophysical Research, 90(B5), 3551-3557.

[16] Northrup, C. J., Royden, L. H., & Burchfiel, B. C. (1995). Motion of the Pacific plate relative to Eurasia and its potential relation to Cenozoic extrusion along the eastern margin of Eurasia. Geology, 23, 719-722.

[17] Xu, J. W., Zhu, G., Lü, P. J., Zheng, X. X., & Sun, S. Q. (1995). Progress in studies on strike-slip chronology of the Tan-Lu fault zone. Geology of Anhui, 5(1), 1-12.

[18] Engebretson, D. C., Cox, A., & Gordon, R. G. (1985). Relative motions between oceanic and continental plates in the Pacific basin. The Geological Society of America, Special Paper, 206, 1-59.

[19] Maruyama, S., Isozaki, Y., Kimura, G., & Terabayashi, M. (1997). Paleogeographic maps of the Japanese Islands: Plate tectonic synthesis from 750 Ma to the present. The Island Arc, 6(1), 121-142.

[20] Zhu, G., Wang, D. X., Liu, G. S., Niu, M. L., & Song, C. Z. (2004). Evolution of the Tan-Lu fault zone and its responses to plate movements in West Pacific Basin. Chinese Journal of Geology, 39(1), 36-49.

[21] Ren, J. Y., & Zhang, Q. L. (2004). Analysis of development mechanism for center anticline high in Dongying Depression. Geotectonica et Metallogenia, 28(3), 254-262.

[22] Han, W. G., Ji, J. Q., & Wang, J. D. (2005). The seismic evidence of Tan-Lu fault’s left-lateral strike-slip from Palaeocene to Early Eocene. Progress in Natural Science, 15(11), 1383-1388.

[23] Li, L., Zhong, D. L., Yang, C. C., Shi, X. P., Hu, Q. Y., Zhao, L., Sun, Y. H., & Liu H. (2012).Extension order and its deep geological background: Evidence from western Shandong Rise and Jiyang Depression in the Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Earth Science Frontiers (China University of Geosciences, Beijing), 19(5), 255-273.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c)

Share us to:   


  • How to do online submission to another Journal?
  • If you have already registered in Journal A, then how can you submit another article to Journal B? It takes two steps to make it happen:

1. Register yourself in Journal B as an Author

  • Find the journal you want to submit to in CATEGORIES, click on “VIEW JOURNAL”, “Online Submissions”, “GO TO LOGIN” and “Edit My Profile”. Check “Author” on the “Edit Profile” page, then “Save”.

2. Submission

  • Go to “User Home”, and click on “Author” under the name of Journal B. You may start a New Submission by clicking on “CLICK HERE”.

We only use three mailboxes as follows to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases:;;

 Articles published in Advances in Petroleum Exploration and Development are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY)


Address:1020 Bouvier Street, Suite 400, Quebec City, Quebec, G2K 0K9, Canada.

Telephone: 1-514-558 6138
Website: Http://

Copyright © 2010 Canadian Research & Development Centre of Sciences and Cultures