Spectral Analysis of Catalytic Oxidation and Degradation of Bromophenol Blue at Low pH with Potassium Dichromate

Rafia Azmat, Zahida Khalid, Marium Haroon, Khalida Mehar


This research investigated the efficacy of potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), ultraviolet (UV) solar irradiation and UV in combination with two diprotic acid i-e sulphuric and oxalic acid (UV chromate/carbonate), for decolorizing bromophenol blue (BPB). The results suggested that alone UV and solar exposure was the poor decolorizer of the dye waste water. Up to 10% color removal with alone UV and solar treatment were achieved which indicated that, only solar and UV were not effective for dye removal even though UV was slightly more effective as compared to solar one. The decline reaction rate was observed as a result of increased concentration of dye. Increase in concentration of dichromate showed two peaks at 592 and 515 which showed that bromophenol degraded into two smaller components through complex formation. Addition of sodium carbonate as a catalyst in dye chromate-oxalate system found to be effective in degradation of BPB with reduced time period. The reaction was rapid and almost maximum of the dye converted into CO2. Research outcome suggests that chromate-oxalate system is very effective techniques for reducing color of dye waste water for safety of aquatic environment. Reaction pathway of oxidation of BPB is discussed in the relevant section of the paper.


Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7); UV and Solar irradiation; Oxalic acid; Sodium carbonate; Bromophenol

Full Text:



Asim, K. De., Chaudhuri, B., Bhattacharjee, S., &. Dutta, B. K. (1999). Estimation of & z.ccirf;OH radical reaction rate constants for phenol and chlorinated phenols using UV/H<sub>2sub>O<sub>2sub> photo-oxidation. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 64(1), 91-104.

Azmat, R., & Saleem, N. (2011). Thionine sensitized areobicphotooxidation of thiourea in acidic medium. Frontiers of Chemistry in China, 6(2), 120-126.

Azmat, R., Qadri, M., & Uddin, F. (2011). Spectrokinetics study of probable effects of diverse inorganic ions on bleaching of dye. Frontiers of Chemical Science and Engineering, 5(1), 131-138.

Azmat, R., Qamar, N., & Naz, R. (2011). A new approach for reduction of methylene green with ascorbic acid by de-oxygenation through carbon dioxide. Natural Science, 3(7), 566-572.

Bali, U. (2003). Ferrioxalate-mediated photodegradation and mineralization of 4-Chlorophenol. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 10(1), 33-38.

Catherine, S. E., & Dellinger, B. (2005). Mechanisms of Dioxin Formation from the High-Temperature Oxidation of 2-Bromopheno. Environmental Science and Technology, 39(7), 2128-2134.

David, V., Marotta, R., Andreozzi, R., Napolitano, A., & Ischia, M. (2004). Kinetic and chemical assessment of the UV/H<sub>2sub>O<sub>2sub> treatment of antiepileptic drug carbamazepine. Journal of Chemosphere, 54(4), 497-505.

Garth, L. W., & Randall, E. (1963). HammComplex Ions of Chromium. X. Resolution of cis-Dioxalatodiaquochromate(III) and Kinetics of Racemization in Acid. Inorganic Chemistry, 2(2), 295–297.

Gemeay, A. H., Ikhlas, A. M., Rehab, G. El-Sharkawy, & Ahmed, B. Z. (2003). Kinetics and mechanism of the heterogeneous catalyzed oxidative degradation of indigo carmine. Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, 193: 109-120.

Giles, C. H. (1972). The Oxidation of Azo Dyes and its relation to Light Fading. Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists, 65(12), 639-649.

Gogate, P. R., & Pandit, A. B. (2004). A review of imperative technologies for wastewater treatment II: hybrid methods. Advances in Environmental Research, 8(3-4), 553-597.

Kreft, S., & Kreft M. (2007). Physicochemical and physiological basis of dichromatic colour. Naturwissenschaften, 94(11), 935-939.

Levy, I., Ward, G., Hadar, Y., Shoseyov, O., & Dosoretz, C. G. (2003). Oxidation of 4-bromophenol by the recombinant fused protein cellulose-binding domain-horseradish peroxidase immobilized on cellulose. Biotechnology and bioengineering, 82(2), 223-231.

Mario, B., Nicola ,C., Alessandro, Lolita, L., Antonino, M., Lucia, T.(2000). Ruthenium sulfophthalocyanine catalyst for the oxidation of chlorinated olefins with hydrogen peroxide. Journal of Organometallic Chemistry, 416, 593–594.

Olumuyiwa, A. J., Isaac, T. S., Adewunmi, O. A., & Ololade, A. I. (2012). Effects of palm kernel shell on the microstructure and mechanical properties of recycled polyethylene/palm kernel shell particulate composites. Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, 11, 825-831.

Salem, I. A. (2000). Kinetics of the oxidative color removal and degradation of bromophenol blue with hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by copper (II)-supported alumina and zirconia Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 28(3-4), 153-162.

Sanabria, N. R., Molina, R., & Moreno, S. (2012). Review Article Development of Pillared Clays for Wet Hydrogen Peroxide Oxidation of Phenol and Its Application in the Posttreatment of Coffee Wastewater. International Journal of Photoenergy, ID 864104: 17.

Uchida, M., Furusawa, M., & Akitsugu, O. (2003). Decomposition of 2-bromophenol in NaOH solution at high temperature. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 101(3), 231-238.

Xu, X. Q., & Zhang, Z. Q. (2000). Kinetic Spectrophotometric Determination of Oxalic Acid Based on the Catalytic Oxidation of Bromophenol Blue by Dichromate MicrochimicaActa, 135(3-4), 169-172 2000.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968%2F3734


  • There are currently no refbacks.


If you have already registered in Journal A and plan to submit article(s) to Journal B, please click the CATEGORIES, or JOURNALS A-Z on the right side of the "HOME".

We only use the following emails to deal with issues about paper acceptance, payment and submission of electronic versions of our journals to databases:
caooc@hotmail.com; office@cscanada.net; office@cscanada.org

Copyright © Canadian Research & Development Centre of Sciences and Cultures (CRDCSC)
Address:758, 77e AV, Laval, Quebec, H7V 4A8, Canada

Telephone: 1-514-558 6138
Http://www.cscanada.net; Http://www.cscanada.org
E-mail:caooc@hotmail.com; office@cscanada.net