Endosymbiotic Actinidic Archaea and Viroids Regulate Cellular Organelle Function, Cell Growth, Cell Differentiation and Cell Death

Ravikumar Kurup A., Parameswara Achutha Kurup

Abstract


Background: A hypothesis regarding the role of endosymbiotic actinidic archaea and viroids in the regulation of cell function, cell differentiation, cell proliferation and cell death is discussed. Endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF) along with the root wilt disease of coconut is endemic to Kerala with its radioactive actinide beach sands. Actinides like rutile producing intracellular magnesium deficiency due to rutile-magnesium exchange sites in the cell membrane has been implicated in the etiology of EMF. Organisms like phytoplasmas and viroids have also been demonstrated to play a role in the etiology of these diseases. Actinidic archaea and viroids have been related to the pathogenesis of malignancies and degenerations. The actinidic archaea have a mevalonate pathway and cholesterol catabolism. An actinide dependent shadow biosphere of archaea and viroids regulating the cell cycle is described in the above mentioned disease states. Methods: The following groups were included in the study:- Group A: Non-hodgkin’s B cell lymphoma, multiple myeloma and cns glioma- glioblastoma multiforme. Group B :- Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease and Motor neuron disease. There were 10 patients in each group and each patient had an age and sex matched healthy control selected randomly from the general population. Cholesterol substrate was added to the plasma of the patients and the generation of cytochrome F420, free RNA, free DNA, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, hydrogen peroxide, pyruvate, ammonia, glutamate, cytochrome C, hexokinase, ATP synthase, HMG CoA reductase, digoxin and bile acids were studied. The changes with the addition of antibiotics and rutile to the patient’s plasma were also studied. Results: The parameters mentioned above were increased the patient’s plasma with addition of cholesterol substrate. The addition of antibiotics to the patient’s plasma caused a decrease in all the parameters while addition of rutile increased their levels. Conc lus ion: An a c t inide dependent shadow biosphere of archaea and viroids is described in nonhodgkin’s B cell lymphoma, multiple myeloma and CNS glioma- glioblastoma multiforme producing the Warburg phenotype contributing to their pathogenesis. Actinidic archaea and viroids can also contribute to the cell death in Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease and Motor neuron disease. The role of actinidic archaea and viroids as well as endogenous digoxin in regulation of cell function, cell differentiation, cell proliferation and cell death is discussed. The endosymbiotic actinidic archaea and viroids can regulate the cell cycle and cellular organelle function.

Key words: Archaea; Viroids; Cholesterol; Actinide; Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma; CNS Glioma; Alzheimer’s Disease; Parkinson’s Disease; Huntington’s Disease; Motor Neuron Disease; Cell Cycle; Organelle


Keywords


Archaea; Viroids; Cholesterol; Actinide; Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma; CNS Glioma; Alzheimer’s Disease; Parkinson’s Disease; Huntington’s Disease; Motor Neuron Disease; Cell Cycle; Organelle



DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968%2Fj.ans.1715787020120501.1165

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